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WASHINGTON: Board las large powers of discre.
tion as to estimating moral character.
WEST VIRGINIA: Good moral character and Eng.
Tish edication. WISCONSIS: Must not liare been convicted of
crime in course of professional business.
The Stato medical examining board does not
regard a diploma (of a scliool) of any State as suüiicient to entitle holder of samo to practice in this State, but will consider such diploma in connection with the examination of the holder of the saine for a license. All applicants are examined in nerious diseases, obstetric dis. cascs of women and children, anatomy, prac. tice, histology, surgery, physiology, medical juri:prndence, materia meilica, chemistry, dis. eases of the eye and car, preventive medicine. Diplomas are not recognized. All must pass
examination by State board. All are esamined save those who possess di.
ploma from a medical college having three or more courses of lectures of six months each, and after the year 1904 at least four courses of not less than six months each, no two courses to be
taken during the same year. No person shall be allowed to practice medicine,
surgery, or obstetrics who has not received å medical education and a diploma from somo regularly chartered medical school, said school to have a bona fide existence at the time when gaid diploma was granted.
What analitications as to citizenship, personal character, and liberal (ucation are required from the applicant !
Whai analifications are required in the way of a
professional study of law, and must such study Dve done in a law office, or le supplemented by siuly in such utlice?
Citizenship required. Must be of age and of a , Graduates at the lar school of the State Univer. good moral character.
įsity are admitted without examination; others
iniiet undergo the examination on the course
of study prescribed by supreme court. vinst be a resident of the State, of age, and of All are required to pass an examination in open good moral character.
Must be of age, and of good moral character. • Vo other requirement.
The professional attainments of the applicant are
ascertained by any two judges.
Six months' residence in the State required. ! Graduates from tho Cuirersity of Texas are
Applicant must be of age, and have a good admitted without examination. Others are reputaiion.
examined by a committee on Blackstone's Com. mentaries, Kent's Commentaries, Stephens on Pleading. Story's Equity Pleading, first volume of Greenleaf, Story on Notes, Story on Partner: ship, Story's Equity Jurisprudence, or books of like character. He is aspected to hare some knowledge of the constitution and statutes of
Texas and tho practice of her courts. Citizen of United States or one haring declared All applicants are strictly examined in open
intention to become a citizen. Must be of age, court. and good moral character. Must hare resideel in Vermont six months, bo All are examinel in open court by a committee of age, and of good inoral character.
of the bar; but applicant must have studied three years in the ottice of a practicing attorney, though not more than two of these years may be spent in attendance at a law school chartered
by any State of the United States. Bluet hare resided in State six months, be of It appears that all are subject to examination by age, and a person of lionest demcanor.
the supreme court of appeals on common law, equitycommercial law and practice, and the code of Virginia, bat the diploma of a law school duly incorporated by one of the United States
"is considered." Must be a citizen of the United States, haro The supreme court by two of its judges satisfies
resided in State one year, have a good moral itself that the applicant has sufficient general character (aud 21 years of age).
learning (but an attorney of the State must cer. tify that applicant has studied law for two years previons to his application and that he believes him to be a person of sufficient legal knowledge and ability to discharge the duties of an attor. ney and counselor at law, laws 1897).
unst be a citizen, one year a resident of the All applicants are now (1897) examined by the county, have a good moral cliaracter.
law faculty of the University of West Virginia
for the supreme court. Must be a resident of the State and be of good Graduates of the law department of the Univer: nioral character.
sity of Wisconsin are admitted on their diploinas; others are examined by State board of examiners, if they have studied law at least
two years prior to the examination. Must be a citizen, of ago. of good moral char. (See preceiling column.)
acter, and learnell in the law, all of which must bo passed upon by the standing com. mittee on admission of each court. An exam ination is marie into the private character and unprofessional literary attainments of appli.
II.—THE PREPARATION OF THE PROFESSOR. Those who teach in schools of medicine and law may be divided into two classes. One class, experts in the thing, sell their knowledge and enıleavor to impart their skill; another class, expert in imparting the knowledge of the thing and in placing the students in the way of acquiring skill, sell their own expertness in approaching the tutored mind and levoto themselves to teaching and practical study. Possibly the latter class is not very large in America, nor in Great Britain, nor in Paris. But the universities of Edinbury and the faculty of medicine of Paris have long since lost their supremacy as centers of melical education, and the Inns of ('ourt at London and the Sorbonne at Paris aro not now regarded as the great central influence for the common law of England or the civil law of Rome. The legal lights of Bentham, Austin, Pollock, Auson, Holland, of Oxford or Cambridge, and of Holmes of Massachusetts havo supplanted those of Coke, Blackstone, and the Yearbooks, and those of Savigny, lhring, and Pichta, those of Pothier. This medicine and law are not now generally regarded as necessarily mere trades, and “sharp lawyers” aro 110 more likel by the legal profession than long bills are liked by the physician's patient. With insuperable perseverance the national associations of law and medicino have been laboring to shake their respective professions free of disreputable or undesirable elements which would not be found therein were Justinian's legal precepts more carefully observed: Honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere.
While the great professional bodies in America are slowly making the learned professions learned by arousing public interest in the matter and overcoming popular prejudice against the formation of a class of highly respectable if not highly skilled physicians and judges drawn from among the people themselves, the democracy of France, through its organ, the Government of that Republic, has been very solicitous to introduce the best methods of professional instruction in its higher education, and it is from the German university that the cue has been taken.
One of the most valuable and distinctive features of the German university is the "privat-docent," whose function in a university is to recommend himself by teaching some special branch that is too new and untested to bo regularly introiluced into official university instruction, but may be too important to be ignored by the conservatism of the regular official body of instructors. Thus as the common law is supposel to be a body of never-changing dicta, though in practice it is ever changing by the interpretation of the judges whose ideas are colored by those of the times, so the management of the German universities has promeditatedly introduced an agency that, by insidiously supplanting the contents of the encyclopedia of the truth taught at any given time, never allows the university to grow antiquated. As the privat docent is assured of not but what the value of his instruction and bis energy can secure, he is less conservative than the fellow of the English university, who is at least assured of his fellowship and the emoluments therefrom arising.
By the act of November 5, 1877, this "privat docentism" was introduced into France under the name of " maitre de conferences,” with this difference, however, tho master of conferences is an official appointee, paid by the Government, which the privat docent is not; the maitro is a part of the university hierarchy, while the docent is a free lance, tolerated, even patronized and subsidized, but still on sufferance. The ideas of thoso who mado this great change in higher education in France are recounted in the circnlar letter of advice of the French minister of public instruction, March 18, 1878, a part of which is here translated :
Mr. RECTOR : 2 Article 1 of the 5th of November, 1877, established two (listinct groups of maitres de conferences. You are aware, Mr. Rector, each of our faculties-in spite of the late great increase in
'L'education nouvelle, p. 31 et scg., Jonsieur Breal, in liis Excursions Pédagogiques, does not think that the State ought to pay the large number of maitres de conferences that are required in order to leave no lacuna in the university programme. He would nationalize for France the real docent as found in Germany, inerely changing his name into French, "docteur libre;” that is, in English, "independent professor or teacher," doctor in its old university sense meaning "a teacher."
? France is a university divided into seventeen academies. Orer each academy is a rector who has charge of cducational interests within that academy. It must be understood that "Université de France" covers all French territory, and that academies are educational counties in this educational State or the l'niversité de France,
the personnel-has chairs whose duties are too large to be performed by one professor, lowerer great his diligence and his talent. Moreover, it happens sometimes that a professor las preferences for particu. lar parts of his subject and is inclineil to dwell on certain topics of his course to the detriment of tho othiers, tlıus learing the student on some occasions without other assistance than his books. It is to overcome this inconvenience that maitres do conferences have been attached to chairs. They aro to derclop the matters that the professor lias merely touched upon (u'aura fait qu'indiquer) or to repeat difficult parts, using the best texts when the matter is literary filans les lettres), or in conducting experiments calculated to show results and their causes when the matter is in the domain of science.
Tlie second group of inaitro de conferences has quite another character. The personnel of the facul. ties of sciences and letters was created in 1808, it seems, especially in view of the necessities of exam. inations, and not long ago there were faculties with only four professors. Even now many are representeil by fire inembers, & ridiculously inadequate number, especially if one considers the variety of routes that new method of criticism and experimentation havo opened up luring the last fifty years. Without pretending to afforil the profusion of courses that are offered in other countries, tho Gorernmeat desires to enlarge the too narrow field of work to which our faculties have been confined and to permit the studert to more more freely in the way his individual aptitudes propelliim-indeed, to fortify those aptitudes by offering means of more extended research and comparisons. Viewing the question from this stan point, the Chamber of Deputies and tho Senate have placed at my disposal the necessary sum to provide for 70 maitres de conferences, which are to be placed by the side of the regular chairs, being, as it were, probationary chairs (chaires en experience).
They are not dependent upon a professor; their teaching belongs to themselves; but they are connected with the other chairs by an obligation npon which I insist, which is to adapt their lessons to the special work of the faculty and to the advancement of the student.
The maitres, whose functions are thus describoil, are appointed for the faculties of letters and sciences. In the faculties of law, medicine, and pharmacy those who perform the dnties of the maitres are caller “agrégés" and are appointed on the result of a competitive examivation, and hold the place for nine years if not previonsly permanently appointed as a professor. The ole system of "suppleants” to the clairs lias been suppressed, the place of tlie supplementary professor being filled by the agrégé (as a chargé de conrs], who may be transferred from one faculty to another at the will of the minister of pullie instruction. The supplement was appointed for life and was a permanent fixture in the faculty to which he was attached. But all this is laid down in full detail in the laws which follow; in Note A several differences between the American and French university in executive matters are discussed.
THE POSITION OF THE PROFESSOR.
Before entering upon the regulations governing the appointment of the agrégés and the examination of candidates for degrees in each faculty, it is convenient to give titlo 5 of the decree of December 28, 1885, relative to the organization of the faculties of the schools of superior instruction. This title refers entirely to the professors who occupy chairs-professeurs titulaires":
Art. 32. Instruction is given in the faculties and in the highor schools of pharmacy by titular proiessors, assistant professors (adjoint), chargés de cours, and maitres de conferences (the titular professors being permanently located, the others not].
Alt. 33. The titular professors are appointed according to the form prescribed by the decrees of March?, 1852, August 22, 1854, and February 27, 1880. [They are appointed by the minister.) The request for a transfer from one chair to another in tho saine faculty is submitted to the consideration of the council of the faculiy and to the permanent section of the highor council of public instruction. Thus, also, is the request for transference from ono faculty to another submitted to the conncils of the raznities interested and to the permanent section of the higher council of public instruction. The appointinent to now chairs is made directly by the minister.
ART. 34. Yo titular professor shall be displaced from office for an equivalent position unless con. senteel to by the permanent section of the higher council of public instruction after he has been heard.
ART. 35. The titular professora may obtain leave of absence, renewable for five consecutive years at the most, on account of sickness or a temporary pubiic mission foreign to publie instruction. Thoy rereire, in the first case, half of their pay, and in the second case, when the service in which they are employeel does not lead to a pension, 100 franes, the pay for inactivity (traitement d'inactivité). Tho titular professors may, with the consent of the council of the faculty or school, be excused from the duty of examination, losing, however, a fourth of their pay. This privilege may only be granted when the work of the faculty will not sufier, but may it not be granted to a number that are more than one. sisth of the titular professors.
1 Statistiques de l'enseignement superiéur, 1878-88, p. 95
ART. 36. The suppléances are suppressed. When the leave granted to the titular professors requires it a course or conference is provided, renewable each year, to fill the la-una. (Formerly tlio "511p. pleant" took the chair of the absentee.]
ART. 37. Whenever a chair becomes vacant by death, expulsion, retireme:t on a pension, or by revocation, until the appointment of a new titular professor tho lacuna in the instruction is filled by means of a course or conference renewable each year.
ART. 38. The claims of the applicants for chargé de cours and of inaitre de conferences are sub. mitteil to the consideration of the consulting committeo of public instruction ministry of public instruction at Paris, first section). In the faculties of law and medicine the courses and conferences are confided to the agrégés.
ART. 30. The titular professors are not required to retire on a pension until they are 70 years of age, except they ask it or are unable to perform their duties. They may remain in service beyond their seventieth year detached (hors cadre) with the consent of the permanent section of the higher council of public instruction...
SALARY OF THE PROFESSOR. I'revious to 1876 the professors were paid a regular salary of from $800 to $1,200, which was increased by their fees as examiners. By the decree of January 14, 1876, these examination fees to the profit of the professor were abolished and a fixed salary paid instead—$1,200 to $2,200 for the professors in the faculties of law and letters, of $1,200 to $2,000 in the faculties of medicine and sciences. The professors were clas-ed as professors at Paris, and professors-outside-of-Paris. The practical working of the new order of things was unsatisfactory, for it only "sowed division among colleagues who had passed the same examinations, lowered the dignity of the professors, and introduced into the faculties habits of solicitation deeply to be regretted.” In 1881 a new classification was made, the professors of the several faculties of the country outside of Paris were placed in one of four classes, called first, second, third, and fourth class respectively, and the professors of the Paris faculties placed in one of two classes, called first and second class respectively. The following table will show the change in salary made by the law of 1881 and the variation in the number of titular professors. It will also bring out the difference, so far as the absolute amount receive:l is concerneel, of being a professor at l’aris and a Government professor in another part of France:
Intrealing the thir
for the cha
scertain the er
17. Then this supreu Hit rears of age, a
a the technique th: aia since bis pupi 17. n the faculties of
of the course. antiems; he fils
de conférences" Dail. It is necessar le conformable to
know how to u Absthese genera
title of the 1874 rate, lat also his set of practical instr 082" Jaly 30, 1887, ai 21:37. In the facultie w the agrégés bi
Chairs (no change
el kiery three years
There are four int, for abatonical
and natural bistory trond, for physica thing for medicine, 12. The preparato
Antal lesson of foi
$3,000 $1, 200-$2,200 $3,000 $2, 400 $2,500 $2,000 $1, 600 $1,200
91 17 4 8 10 50 30
Chairs Catholic theoi. 08: Salary
Chairs Frotestaut the clogy:
burth for surgery
leton upon a que eminel. The sur vodilate shall have 1 pablic exhibition
the candidate sh
that problems be babe has found. If the of his work, he
le candidates for
2 (186) 3 (24) 2 (3d) 11 (1st) 11 (2d) 53 (30) 32 (4th)
9 (1st) 11 (21) 17 (3d) 29 (4th) 2 (1st) 5 (20) 3 (3)