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What qualifications are required in the way of What qualifications as to citizenship, personal i
a professional study of medicine, specifying.in
ad lition to the branches of medicine and sur. character, and liberal education are required from the applicant?
gery, and practico thereof required, the dura. tion of such study, anıt whether it must be supplementeil by study with a physician?"
New YORK: Certificate of good moral character
from not fewer than two physicians in goool
Cork as equivalent to such high-schooi course.
Evidence that applicant has studied medicine not
less than four full years of at least nine months cach, including satisfactory courses of at least six months each, in four citierent calendar years in a medical school registerelas maintaining at tho time a satisfactory standarul. The appli cant for license to practice medicine in New York State (not a graduate?] must pass exami. nations in anatomy: physiology, hygiene.chem. istry, surgery, obstetrics, pathology and diag. nosis, therapeutics, practice, and materia metlica.
(See also p. 1234.) No attention paid to diplomas. Satisfactory ex
amipation in all branches of medicine. No study with physician required. Examinations are comprehensive but aro liberal; 80 per cent is necessary to pass, however.
OHIO: Good moral character from two registered All medical colleges of the United States requirphysicians of the State.
ing a minimum of three years of study of meli. cirle anı two courses of lectures for graduation
prior to 1886, and possessing proper facilities for teaching and a faculty embracing the chairs of anatomy; physiology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, inculicine, surgery, and obstetries shall be recognized as in good stand ing, and diploinas issued by the same and properly verified shall outitle tho hollers thereof to register as graduates in modicine. For the ten years ending in February, 1896, all medical col. leges exacting the foregoing requirements and possessing facilities and a fnculty as specified abore shall, by virtue of such facis, be recognized as in good standing to and including the year 1892, but that 110 medical college shall be recognizel is in good standing which has not sinco 1892 possessed the foregoing facilities and faculty, and in addition has not exacted an entrance qualitica: 1 tion and attendance upon three regular courses of lectures as a condition of graduation. On and after July 1, 1899, no inedical college will be recognized as in good standing which (loes not require the entrance qualification prescribed by the Association of American Medical Colleges as a prereguisito for matriculation, which does not possess an adeqnate equipment for teaching medicine, which has not clinical and hospital facilities based upon a minimum municipal population of 50,000, and which does not have an active faculty embracing the departments of anatomy, plıysiology, chemistry, materia medica and therapeutics, medicine, surgery, obstetrics, histology, pathology; bacterioloss, ophtalmology anotology, gynæcology, laryngology, hygiene, and State melicine, and which does not enjoin attendance upon 80 per cent of four regular courses of instruction of not less than twenty-six weeks cach, in four different years, and which does not exact an average grade of 75 per cent on an examination as a condition of graduation, providing that the rule relaure to population as a basis for clinical and hospital facilities shall not apply to institutions under State control and which by virtue of such control receives gratuitously patients from all parts of
the State in which such coileges are located.
haso been a practicing physician for tivo lears
the several branches of medicine. OREGOS: Good moral character required
No attention paid to college diplomas. All must
stand an examination before State medical
board on anatomy, physiology, etc. PENNSYLVANIA: Applicant must be 21 years of Four yearsstu ly of medicine, including three rears
ace, of good moral character, and have a com- in some legally incorporated medical college ci. petcut common school education.
the United States, or a diploma or licenso con ferring the full right to practice all the branches of medicine and surgery in some foreign coun try. Others must stand an examination before
boarul. RHODE ISLAND: Citizenship is a new question Examination on eleven branches of medicine
and has never occurred to us befor but will required. Applicant [for examination) must now receive attention. Personal character has have obtained diploma from a school liaving a not been required. It is difficult to establishi four-years' courso in medicine during the year [truc) character of applicant, but we do not is. of graduation. One year at a veterinary or sne certiticate until applicant has been in prac- dental school will not pass for
a year of sinds tice for three months in this State and if he in medicine. School must have a course of turn out an advertising, charlatanic person we twenty-six wceks, teach all main and supple. refuse to grant certiticate. A high-school or mentary branches. Study with physician not academic education is required of all colleges requireil nor is it accepted as a part of the four in good standing."
years. Diplomas of schools located in cities of fewer than 50,000 peoplo not accepted.
What qualifications as to citizenship, personal
character, and liberal etlucation are required from tliv applicaut?
What qualifications are requred in the way of a professional study of law and nuust such study study in such an office?
Must be a citizen and present certificate of
good moral character. Liberal education is required.
For college graduates two years' stay of law is
requireil (for others, three years) cifer in law school or in office. There is a State board of law examiners.
Ono year residence in the State required, as also a certificate of good moral character, signod by two members of the bar.
Must be a resident, of gooil moral character
All must undergo an examination and must havo
read law in a law office or in a law school for twelve months at least. Supreme court con.
ducts examination. All are examineil, bat applicants must have read
law in an ottice or studied in some reputable law school for two yoars (thirty-six weeks of session being taken as a year). Supreme court exam.
incs applicants. All must pass an exarcination, to which those
only are admitteil who havo studied law three years either in an oflice or in a law school. Sapreme Court appoints a committee of nine members to examine applicants.
Must be a citizen of the United States or have
declared intention, hare resided ono year in Stute, and be a person of good moral charater. Nothing in the way of a liberal education.
Must possess a good inoral character
Must have acquired the requisite learning. This
fact is ascertaiucı by examination by the court. Applicant is examined in open court by committee.
He must be a citizen of the United States and of a good moral character as certified to by two i persons. He must have a good English educa. tion and a knowledge of the olements of Latin as evidenced by examination.
In most comties the rules of court require a two or tliree years' course of study (prior to tinal ex. amination by a committee) in the ofice of a member of the local bar and require at least one year's actual work in an otlice, even for students of regular law schools.
WASHINGTON: Board lias large powers of discre
tion as to estimating moral character.
WEST VIRGINIA: Goorl moral character and Eng.
lish education. WISCONSIS: Must not liave been convicted of
crime in course of professional business.
The Stato medical examining board does not
regard a diploma (of a school] of any State as swiicient to entitle holder of samo to practice iu this State, but will consider such diploma in connection with the examination of the holder of the saine for a license. All applicants are osamine in nervous diseases, obstetric dis. cascs of women and children, anatomy, prac: tice, histology, surgery, physiology, medical jurisprudence, materia medica, cheinistry, dis. cases of the eye and car, preventive medicine. Diplomas are not recognized. All must pass
examivation by Stato board. All are examined save thoso who possess a di.
ploma from a medical college having three or more courses of lectues of six months each, and after the year 1901 at least four courses of not less than six months each, bo two courses to be
taken during the same year. No person shall be allowed to practice medicine,
surgery, or obstetrics who has not received a medical education and a diploma from somo regularly chartered medical school, said school to have a bona fide existence at the time when gaid diploma was granted.
Six monihs' residence in the Stato required. Graduates from tho Cuirersity of Texas are
Applicant must be of age, and have a good admitted without cxamination. Others are reputaiion.
examined by a committee on Blackstone's Commentaries, Kent's Commentaries, Stephens on Plealing, Story's Equity Pleading, first volume of Greenleaf, Story on Notes, Story on Partner: ship, Story's Equity Jurisprudence, or books of like character. He is expected to have some knowledge of the constitution and statutes of
Texas and the practice of her courts. Citizen of United States or one baring declared All applicants are strictly examined in open
intention to become a citizen. Must be of age, court.
and good moral character. Must hare resideil in Vermont six months, bo All are examined in open court ly a committee and of good inoral character.
of the bar; but applicant must have studied three years in the office of a practicing attorney, though not more than two of these years may bo speut in attendance at a law school chartered
by any State of the United States. Just hare resided in State six months, be of It appears that all are subject to examination by age, and a person of lionest demeanor.
the supreme court of appeals on common law, equity, commercial law and practice, and the code of Virginia, but the diploma of a law school duly incorporated by one of the United States
"is considered." Must be a citizen of the United States, havo The supreme court by two of its judges satisfies
resided in State one year, have a good moral itself that the applicant has sufficient general character and 21 years of age).
learning (but an attorney of the State must cer. tify that applicant has studied law for two years previons to his application and that he believes him to be a person of sufficient legal knowledge and ability to discharge the duties of an attor. noy and counselor at law, laws 1897).
Must be a citizen, one year al resident of the All applicants are now (1897) examined by the county, have a good moral character.
law faculty of the University of West Virginia
for the supreme court. Must be a resident of the State and be of good Graduates of the law department of the Univer: moral character.
sity of Wisconsin are admitted on their diplo. inas; others are examined by State board of examiners, if they have studied law at least
two years prior to the examination. Must be a citizen, of age, of good moral char. (See preceiling column.)
acter, and learned in the law, all of which must bo passed upon by the standing committee on admission of each court. An exani ination is made into the private character and unprofessional literary attainments of applicant.
II.—THE PREPARATION OF THE PROFESSOR. Those who teach in schools of medicine and law may be divided into two classes. One class, experts in the thing, sell their knowledge and endeavor to impart their skill; another class, expert in imparting the knowledge of the thing and in placing tho students in the way of acquiring skill, sell their own expertness in approaching the untutored mind and «levoto themselves to teaching and practical study. Possibly the latter class is not very large in America, nor in Great Britain, nor in Paris. But the universities of Edinburg and the faculty of medicine of Paris have long since lost their supremacy as centers of modlical education, and the Inns of Court at London and the Sorbonno at Paris aro not now regardeıl as the great central influence for the common law of England or the civil law of Rome. The legal lights of Bentham, Austin, Pollock, Auson, Holland, of Oxford or Cambridge, and of Holmes of Massachusetts havo supplantell those of Coke, Blackstone, and the Yearbooks, and those of Savigny, lhring, and Puchta, those of Pothier. Thus medicine and law are not 110w generally regarded as necessarily mere trades, and “sharp lawyers” aro no more likel by the legal profession than long bills are liked by the physician's patient. With insuperable perseverance the national associations of law and medicino have been laboring to shake their respective professions free of disreputable or undesirable elements which would not be found therein were Justinian's legal precepts more carefully observed: Honeste vivere, alterum non laedere, suum cuique tribuere.
While the great professional bodies in America are slowly making the learned professions learned by arousing public interest in the matter and overcoming popular prejudice against the formation of a class of highly respectable if not highly skilled physicians and judges drawn from among the people themselves, the democracy of France, through its organ, the Government of that Republic, has been very solicitous to introduce the best methods of professional instruction in its higher education, and it is from the German university that the cue has been taken.
One of the most valuable and distinctive foatures of the German university is the “privat-docent," whose function in a university is to recommend himself by teaching some special branch that is too new and untested to be regularly introiluced into official university instruction, but may be too important to be ignored by the conservatism of the regular official body of instructors. Thus as the common law is supposeel to be a body of never-changing dicta, though in practice it is ever changing by the interpretation of the judges whose ideas are colored by those of the times, so the management of the German universities has promeditatedly introduced an agency that, by insidiously supplanting the contents of the encyclopedia of the truth taught at any given time, never allows the university to grow antiquated. As the privat docent is assured of nothing but what the value of his instruction and bis energy cau secure, he is less conservative than the fellow of the English university, who is at least assured of his fellowship and the emoluments therefrom arising.
By the act of November 5, 1877, this “privat docentism" was introduced into France under the name of “maitro de conferences," with this difference, however, tho master of conferences is an official appointee, paid by the Government, which the privat docent is not; the maitro is a part of the university hierarchy, while the docent is a free lance, tolerated, even patronized and subsidized, but still on sufferance. The ideas of thoso who made this great change in higher education in France are recounted in the circnlar letter of advice of the French minister of public instruction, March 18, 1878, a part of which is here translated :
Mr. RECTOR :? Article 1 of the 5th of November, 1877, established two distinct groups of maîtres do conferences. You are aware, Mr. Rector, each of our facultics-in spito of the late great increase in
'L' education nouvelle, p. 31 et seq., Monsieur Dreal, in liis Escursions Pédagogiques, does not think that the State ought to pay the large number of maitres de conferences that are required in order to leave no lacuna in the university programme. He would nationalize for France the real docent as found in Germany, merely changing his name into French, “docteur libre;” that is, in English, “independent professor or teacher," doctor in its old university sense meaning "a teacher."
? France is a university divided into seventeen academies. Over each academy is a rector who has charge of educational interests within that academy. It must be understood that France" corers all French territory, and that academies are educational counties in this educational State or the l'niversité de France.
i Université de