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What analifications as to citizenship, personal

character, and liberal education aro required from the applicant?

What qualifications are required in the way of a

professional study of law, and must such study be slone in a law office or be gupplemented by study in such an oflice ?

Must be citizen of State; present certificate of

good moral character.

Must present certificate that two years have been

spent in study of law. The court will not be satisfied with the qualifications of a candidate in point of legal learning unless it shall appear that he is well read in the following courgo of studies at least: Constitution (Story), Law of Nations (Vattel or Wheaton), History of tho civil law in Louisiana, Louisiana Civil Code, Code of Practice, General Statutes, Institutes of Jus. tinian, Donats's Civil Law, Pothier on Obliga. tions, Blackstone's Commentaries (fourth book), Kont's Commentaries, Mercantile Law (Smith), Insurance (Wood), Negotiablo Paper (Story, or Parsons and Daniel), Evidence (Greenleaf, Starkio or Phillips), Crimes (Russell), Criminal Proceduro (Bishop), and the Jurisprudence of

Louisiana. Must have studied law two years in a lawyer's

office or law school, and must be vouched for by the member of bar with whom the student has read. The examining coinmitteo is composeil of

three members of the bar in each counts: Must have been a student of law for the two scars

immediately preceding his application, and must be examined by court if not a graduate of a law school in State. The court solects the examin. ing committeo.

Nothing in the way of citizenship or liberal

education, but character must be satisfactory to justice presiding at time of examination.

Must have been a citizen two rears (of State)

and be of good moral character. No liberal education required by law.

Just pass a thorough examination. See letter of

Mr. Fox (p. 1192), answer to seventh question.

Must be a citizen of the State, or declared his

intention to becomo such, and must be of good moral character. Undoubtedly, applicant's command of English, as shown in examina

tion papers, is of weight. Must be a resident in the State, a citizen of the

United States, and of good moral character (affidavit of at least two members of the bar of the State in good standing and on prescribed forms). The board of examiners will regard applicants who have received bachelors' degrees from any reputable college or university as having prima facie the requisite general elucational qualitication for almission to the bar. So also as to graduates of Michigan normal or high schools, or other repntable in. stitntions of similar character. Recent firat. grade teachers'certificate will: be accepted. Otherwise applicant must pass examination, especially arithmetic, grainmar, oleinentary algebra, general American and English history, civil government composition and rhet. orie, and English literature. If the professional examination papers of a college or other graduate show deficiencies in education the

writer will be subject to examination. Must present his atidavit that he is of age and

is a citizen of the United States, or las de. elared his intention to become such. Algo atfidavits from two practicing attorneys that he is a person of good moral character. Board shall examine applicants in such branches of general education as it may deem expedient.

Graduates from lar department of Michigan

University or Detroit College of Law, both liar. ing a three years' course, are admitted to bar on their diploma. Others must hare studied law for three years previous to applying for admis. sion, which shall be conditioned on theapplicant's answering correct 70 per cent of the questions asked him in a written and oral examination on the administration of estates, agency, bailment and carriers, bills and notes, common law, contracts, constitntional laiv, public and privato corporations, criminal law and procedure, dam‘ages, domestic relations, equity jurisprudence and procedure, evidence, insurance, nortgages, partnership, pleading and practice (common and Michigan law), personal and real property, torts, legal ethics, State statute law, interna. tional law, suretyslip, frauds, United States courts. There is a State board of law examiners.

Must be examined by State board of examiners in

law of real property, conveyances and trusts, equity jurisprudenco, pleading and practice, common law, statute law, codo pleading and practico, constitntional law, international law, criminal law, contracts, sales, bailments and negotiable instrumente, landlord and tenant, insurance, partnership, agency, suretyship, frauds, damagos and liens, torts, domestic relations, executors, administrators, and wills. Attorneys of five years' standing from any other State or territory of the United States or District of Co. lumbia may, in the discretion of the board, bo admitted without examination.


What qualifications as to citizenship, personal

character and liberal education are required
from the applicant?

What qualifications are required in the way of a

professional study of medicine, specifying, in addition to the branches of medicine and sur. gery, and practice thereof required, the duration of such study, and whether it must be supplemented by study with a physician ?”

MISSOURI: The law prescribes no qualifications; Under a recent decision of the supreme court it

but in regard to personal character and citizen. is necessary only to be the possessor of a di.
ship the board has made a rule, which has not ploma from a legally chartered medical school
been questioned, according to whiclı an appli. in good standing to be admitted to registration.
cant must present two letters of recommen. The good standing of the school to be deter-
dation from physicians as to his moral and mined, like the reputation of an individual, by
professional character, and he must be a resi. testimony. The court decided that the law did
dent of the State unless he makes affidavit that not authorize the board to set up a standard.
he resides in a county of another State, which

county lies upon the border of Missouri.
MONTANA: None; but board may refuse to grant Applicants must posses a diploma from a repu.
license on moral grounds.

table school of medicine whose professors and teachers are graduates of a school of that kind, and which after July 1, 1898, requires attend. ance upon four courses of lectures of at least six months each, no two terms in one year. No credit for practice of or study with a physician

is given. NEBRASKA .........

NEVADA: None...

A medical education and a diploma from some reg.

ularly chartered inedical school, said school to have a bona fide existence at the time when said

diploma was granted. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Good moral character and 21 Our Stato pays nov (1897) no attention to medi

years of age. Must have graduated from a reg. cal college diplomas except from Dartmouth, istered college or satisfactorily completed a After 1893 Dartmouth graduates will have to full course in a registered acailemy or high stand examination. Applicant must have school, or had a preliminary oducation consid- studied medicine not less than four full school ered and accepted by the regent (State super- years of at least nine months each, including intendent of education) as fully equivalent. four satisfactory courses of at least six months

each, in four diferent calendar years, in a medical college registered as maintaining at the time a satisfactory standard. The regent shall accept as the equivalent for any part of these require. ments or those concerning a literary education, evidence of five or more years of reputable prac tice provided that such substitution bespecified in the license, or has either rereived the degree of bachelor or doctor of medicine from some registered medical school, or a diploma or license conferring full right to practice medicine in

some foreign country. (Recent law.) NEW JERSET: Nothing as to citizenship, bnt at Candidates must have received a diploma confer

least two physicians, one of New Jersey, must ring the degree of doctor of medicine from some voucle for personalcharacter. Candidates must legally incorporated medical college (wbich in be graduates from an accredited literary or the opinion of the board was in good standing scientific college, or bare completed satisfăcto. at the time of issuing said diploma) in the rily not less than a three years' course in an United States or a diploma or license conferaccredited high school or academy, or hare ring the full right to practice all the branches received a preparatory education corering the of medicine and surgery in some foreign coun. following branches, viz orthography, arithme. try, and have also studied medicine four years, tic, English grammar and composition, geogra- including three courses of lectures in ditierent phy, history of the United States, algebra, and years in some legally incorporated American or physics, or what this board of examiners may foreign medical college or colleges prior to the consider their equivalent.

granting of said diploma or foreign license: pro. vided, however, that two courses of medical lectures, both of which shall be either begun or completed within the same calendar year, shall not be considered as satisfying the above requirements. All examinations shall be written in the English language and the questions shall be, except in materia medica and therapeutics, such as can be answered in common by all

schools of practice. NEW MEXICO: Tko certificates well accredited No study with a physician required. As to pro.

as to personal character and professional stand- fessional study our board has not specified at ing. Our board disproves of medical schools length its requirements except as to time (four doing their own examination of candidates for years) and terms of lectures. [courses). (four) matriculation. It requires that each candidate and conditions for matriculation. [A diploma for admission to a medical school shall furnish of a legally chartered medical institution in as a minimum a high school certificate--prefor- good standing will admit to practico-law.] ably a college degree.

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What qualifications as to citizenship, personal What qualifications are required in the way of a character, and liberal education are required

professional study of law, and must such study froin the applicant?

be done in a law office or be supplemented by study in such an office

Must be an actual resident and of good char: Graduates of the St. Louis, Kansas City, and

acter. No particnlar qualification as to liberal Columbia law schools are exempted from exam-education.

ination. Others are required to pass an exam ination in open court.

Must be a resident of the Inited States or who The examination is conducted in open court.
lias made a bona fide declaration of his inten-
tion to become a citizen and that bo is of age,
must have testimonials of good moral char-
acter, and must have studied law for two
years, as certified to by two reputable counsel.

ors at law.
Must be a resident, of age, of good repute, and Graduates of the College of Law of the University

hare studied law for two years. Must at least of Nebraska shall be admitiel, as far as proteshave a good common-school education, which sional learning is concerned, without examinis judged from his composition and spelling at ation. Others are examined by court.

examination. Resident of the State and of good moral charac. Familiarity with the various branches and general ter. A general education only required. practice of the law required, and to this end

study in law office is desirable, although not, required. The examination is by court or com mittee.


Must take the oath of allegiance, be of age, of No person shall be recommended for license as a

good moral character. Must have served a counselor at law in this State unless he first clerkship of four years with some practicing submit himself to examination and give satisattorney of the State unless he is a graduate factory evidence of his knowledge of the priufrom some college or university in the United ciples and doctrines of the law and of his abilities States, when his clerkship may be acquitted in as a pleader, nor shall any be almitted to such three years. During the clerkship ho must examination until he shall have practiced as an not have been engaged in any other business attorney for three years at least. The examinaincompatible with the full and fair bona fide tion for attorneys and counselors shall be both service of his clerkship.

written and oral. The examining committee is composed of six counselors, two going out each year.

Must be a citizen of the United States or de. Must undergo an csamination in open court. clared intention to become such, of good moral character, and bona fide resident of New Mexico.

ED 97- 76


What qualifications are requireil in the way of What qualifications as to citizenship, personal |

a professional study of medicine, specifying in characier, and liberal education are required

addition to the branches of medicine and surfrom the applicant?

gery, and practico thereof requireil, the dura. tion of such study, and whether it must be supplerentel by study with a physician?"

New York: Certificate of good moral character Evidence that applicant has stndied medicine not

from not fewer than two physicians iu gooi less than four full years of at least nine moni hs 1 standing; also evidence that applicant has the cach, including satisfactory courses of at least general education requireil preliminary to re- six months cach, in four ditierent calendar years ceiving thedegree of bachelor or doctor of medi. in a medical school registered as maintaining at cine in this State (molical student certificate), tho ume a satisfactory standard. The applior graduation from a registered college, or satis. cant for license to practice medicine in New factory completion ofa fullconrse in a registered York State (not a graduate?] must pass exami. academy or high school, or had a preliminary nations in anatomy: pluysiology, hygiene, chemeducation considered and accepted by the re- istry, surgery, obstetrics, pathology and diag.

New nosis, therapeutics, practice, and materia melica. Cork as equivalent to such high-schooi course. (See also p. 1234.) NortCANOLINA: Certificate of good moral char. No attention paid to diplomas. Satisfactory eracter from someone known to the board.

Edu: 1

amination in all branches of medicine. cation decided ly charactor of papers handed | study with physician required. Examinations in un examination.

are comprehensive but aro liberal; 80 per cent

is necessary to pass, however. NORTH DAKOTA


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OHIO: Gool moral character from two registered All medical colleges of the United States reqnirphysicians of the State.

ing a minimum of three years of study of metli. cine and two courses of lectures for graduation

prior to 1886, and possessing proper facilities! for teaching and a faculty embracing the chairs of anatomy; physiology, chemistry, materia' medica, therapeutics, medicine, surgery, and obstetries shall be recognized as in good stand. ing, and diploinas issued by the same and properly verified shall entitle the holders thereof to register as graduates in molicine. For the ten years ending in February, 1896, all medical colleyes cxacting the foregoing requirements and possessing facilities and a faculty as specified abore shall, by virtue of such facis, be recognized as in good standing to and including the year 1892, but that 110 medical college shall be recognized as in good standing which has not since 1892 pos: 1 sessed the foregoing facilities and faculty, and in addition has not exacted an entrance qualitica.; tion and attendance upon three regular courses of lectures as a condition of graduation. On and after July 1, 1899, no medical college will be recognized as in good standing which does not require ; the entrance qualification prescribed by the Association of American Medical Colleges as a pre. requisito for matriculation, which does not possess an adequate equipment for teaching medicine. which has not clinical and hospital facilities based upon a minimun municipal population of 50,000, and which does not have an active faculty embracing the departments of anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica and therapeuties, medicine, surgery, obstetrics, histology, pathology, bacteriolour, ophtalmology and otology, gynæcology, laryngology, hygiene, and State metlicine, and which cloes not enjoin attendance upon 80 per cent of four regular courses of instruction of not less than twenty-six weeks cach, in four different years, and which does not exact an average grade oi 75 per cent on an examination as a condition of graduation, providing that the rule relaure to population as a basis for clinical and hospital facilities shall not apply to institutions under State control and which by virtue of sneh control receives gratuitously patients from all parts of

the State in which such colleges are located. OKLAHOMA: Certificate of good moral character 'Yone, if a graduate froin a mellical college in good and that holder is not an habitual drunkard. standing; if not a graduate, applicant must

hare been a practicing physician for five years and pass an examination before the boarel on :

the several branches of medicine. OREGON: Good moral character required

No attention paid to college diplomas. All must!

stand an examination before State medical

boaril on anatomy, physiology, cte PENNSYLVANIA: Applicant must be 21 years of Four yearsstudy of medicine, including three years

ace, of good moral character, and have a com- in some legally incorporated medical collego oi petent common school education.

the United States, or a diploma or licenso conferring the full right to practice all the branches of medicine and surgery in some foreign coun. try. Others must stand an examination before

board. RHODE ISLAND: Citizenship is a new question Examination on cleven branches of medicine

and has never occurred to us before but will required. Applicant [for examination) musi! now receive attention. Personal character has have obtained diploma from a school liaving al not been required. It is difficult to establish four-years' courso in medicine during ihie year (true) character of applicant, but we do not is. of graduation. One year at a veterinary or sne certificate until applicant has been in prac. dental school will not pass for a year of study tice for tliree months in this State and if he in medicine. School must have a course of turn out an advertising, charlatanic person we twenty-six weeks, teach all main and supple. refuse to grant certiticate. A high-school or mentary branches. Stully with physician not academic education is required of all colleges requireil nor is it accepted as a part of the four in " good standing."

years. Diplomas of schools located in cities of fewer than 50,000 people not accepted.

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