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New England. It is not to be overlooked, however, that the unaided enterprise of individual teachers was already pushing in the same direction. Twelve years before the foundation of the Andover Academy one Simon Williams opened, and for twenty years maintained, a noted school in Windham, N. H., drawing pupils from Boston, Salem, and other large towns, and numbering among his pupils not a few who afterwards became distinguished.
The establishment of the two Phillips academies was soon followed by the incorporation of numerous others. Thus, in the year 1791, the Berwick Academy in Maine and five in New Hampshire were incorporated; and in the latter State alone during the earlier part of the present century some 50 academies are said to have been established before the system of high schools maintained by taxation created a competition and a check upon the movement. There were at least 10 in the single county of Merrimack. Most of these, being provided only with a building, and little, if any, productive funds, and sustained by very moderate tuition fees, at length yielded to the unequal competition with institutions supported by taxation, and faded away many years ago, but not until they had done an admirable work for the towns of their location, leaving a void which has never been filled. Places could be mentioned which, during the existence of the academy, furnished an unbroken succession of students for college, but which now scarcely send one in a decade, if at all.
But not a few of these institutions, better endowed, and receiving additional endowments in later years, still continue their noble and indispensable work. They are the recognized feeders of our colleges and the most powerful allies of the cause of higher education. Without attempting an enumeration, I may mention as specimens, in Massachusetts, the famous Phillips Academy at Andover, Williston at Easthampton, Monson Academy, Worcester Academy, Cushing Academy at Ashburnham, Lawrence at Groton; in Vermont, Barre, Peacham, and Saxtons River academies, and the well-known one at St. Johnsbury; in Maine, Berwick, Limington, and Fryeburg academies; in New Hampshire, the renowned Phillips at Exeter, Pinkerton at Derry, Appleton at New Ipswich, Kimball Union at Meriden, Pembroke, and others; all of which have made a splendid record. Many others, now extinct or decayed, have done equally faithful work toward the same end. It is the want of such institutions as these fitting schools which has been found, outside of New England and especially at the West, a great obstacle in the way of the best liberal education, and a chief reason why colleges in those regions can not easily compete in quality with the New England colleges.
They have not the proper feeders, and attention is beginning to be wisely directed to the establishment of academies on the New England model, for the New England academy has shown itself in several respects not unworthy its somewhat ambitious name. In each community it organized and concentrated the best minds in promoting the best culture. The founders and guardians of these widely scattered and once numerous institutions have invariably included the best element, lay and clerical, in the surrounding region-intelligent, sagacious, forceful. The splendid roll of trustees of Dummer Academy has been already mentioned. A similar showing, in kind, if not in extent, could be made of the trustees of the Phillips academies-Pinkerton, Kimball Union, Monson—and doubtless of many others. They have enlisted the men wakeful and watchful for the highest culture of the young. They have also selected and attracted the best teaching talent of the times. Commonly, if practicable, there has been a permanent principal, a man strong, well-balanced, and devoted to his work; such men as Moody, of Dummer; Adams and Taylor, of Andover; Abbott, of Exeter; Richards, of Kimball Union; Hammond, of Monson, and others of like quality, who made both their reputation and that of the school. Around these central figures have been gathered successively as assistants a great company of the ablest young graduates of our colleges, pausing on their way to their several professions, to throw for a
time their early force, enthusiasm, and culture into the minds of other young men. No one who has not pondered the subject can understand the magnificent ability that in its young strength has been educating the New England of the past as well as of the present. It would show a noble list of names afterwards prominent in professional and public life. You strike their track as well in the smaller as in the larger schools. Thus in the little town of Peacham, Vt., we find among the former teachers in the academy one of the ablest of the secretaries of the American Board, one of the ablest lawyers of New Hampshire, the president of a distinguished college, two college tutors, a brilliant medical professor, and other men of power and note.
Among the assistants at Pinkerton Academy are the names of Chief Justice Bell, Prof. E. D. Sanborn, the brilliant Leonard Swain, cut down in his earliest prime, and the equally brilliant Jarvis Gregg, still earlier called away. Thaddeus Stevens and Daniel Webster were academy teachers. So was the late Roswell D. Hitchcock, in a little town of 1,200 inhabitants. So, it may be added, was Dr. R. S. Storrs, at Monson. Many a witness yet living can testify what stirring influences were these models and vitalizing spirits. They were a revelation and an inspiration. Seeds of learning and of thought have thus been scattered over the hills and valleys, in the towns and villages of New England by its future jurists, statesmen, divines, and educators, destined in due time to bring forth a harvest after their kind and to fill the country with their fruitage.
For these institutions have not only organized, but they have diffused the best culture. They first concentrated and then radiated. Widely diffused as they once were, they brought home the thought and often the purpose of the higher education to every fireside. In this respect they have fulfilled a function not accomplished by the later high school. For, though open to all, they were designed rather for special privilege than for universal range, and classical training was more a primary aim than an incidental and subordinate and scarcely tolerated use. They first suggested to a multitude of young men the purpose of a liberal education, and enabled them to accomplish it. They drew, as a magnet, the true steel. In many towns where the once flourishing academy has gone down for want of funds the contrast between the former constant supply and the later dearth of college candidates is a sad one. The registers of the two Phillips academies are dazzlingly bright with names of men foremost in all the walks of life, many of whom would doubtless have found their way elsewhere and many of whom would not.
But it is not alone, nor perhaps chiefly, the public and professional men to whom these influences have been most valuable, but the far larger body of clear-headed business men and active workers, sound thinkers and pillars of society in every station of life. Here they pursued the studies they elected, often inclusive of the classics. Here they perceived the impetus of the same earnest teachers and imbibed the whole tone, spirit, and power of the institution. They came invigorated by the morning walk, often of the longest, and perhaps by their home "chores” before and after school. They came, young men and maidens, with their tidy apparel, their morning greetings, their sympathetic glances and recognitions, sometimes, it may be, a stolen word or note, and joining in the homeward walk, all and always under the guidance of native chivalry on the one side and native modesty on the other, and the benign influence of home life and surroundings. And when they went thence on their several ways of life, many and bright were the memories that clustered round that luminous spot. At South Berwick on the 1st of July it was a pleasant and impressive thing to see the thousand men and women of standing and character, most of them former pupils, who came to celebrate the centennial of Berwick Academy.
One other function of the academy is not to be forgotten, and that by no means ED 97-75
the least important. It gave a thoroughly Christian education. These institutions were quite as often the offspring of religious zeal as of literary enthusiasm. For the most part they were founded and conducted in the interest of pure religion and high morality. It was part of the system and often of the written code to require the reading of the Scriptures and the morning or evening prayer, as well as attendance at church, and to prohibit Sabbath breaking and irreverence and every form of vice and immorality. Not seldom have these institutions been the scenes of deep religious interest and revival. The infidel, the demagogue, and the sectarian banish these influences from the high school, the grammar school, and the primary school; but from the academy they can not dislodge them. That institution remains and may remain the stronghold of a Christian education. For this function, as well as the others, we may thank God and warmly cherish the New England academy.
THE LEARNED PROFESSIONS AND SOCIAL CONTROL.1
The qualifications demanded by the States of the Union for admission to the practice of medicine or of law-The preparations of the French professor for his vocation as a member of a faculty of medicine or law-The institutions in which medical and other scientific instruction is given in Germany, together with their staff and pay of instructors-The interest of society in and its interference with the admission to practice medicine or law.
The existence in a community of a group of individuals devoted to the office of protection and culture may be regarded as an evidence of an advanced stage of civilization. The profession of the law is devoted to the protection of property; tho profession of medicine to the protection of the body; the profession of divinity exclusively to the culture of the people. Some of the phases of social life have their analogues in the life of animals, but no animals so far as known have any special groups of individuals corresponding to those that fill the professions in human society. Such professions in fact, as we find them in civilized nations, prove the inheritance of their civilization from the Greeks, who were the intellectual ancestors that first investigated the laws of mind, and from the Romans, who formulated the laws that govern advanced social organizations. This ancestry has been appealed to for intelligent direction after the terrible epoch of the year 1,000 in the name of bodily safety, during the period called the Renaissance in the name of intellectual freedom, and at the outbreak of the English Revolution of 1688, and of the French Revolution of 1789, in the name of personal equality before the law. Each of these social revolutions has been marked-possibly a mere coincidence-by a predilection for a certain line of study. During the Middle Ages theology held sway, during the Renaissance law, and later its offspring, culture, was the favorite study, and during the period of which the present forms a part the study of medicine predominates. The close of the Middle Ages is usually placed at 1453, the year of the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. In 1400, at the celebrated University of Cologne, in the domains of the ecclesiastical monarch called the Archbishop of Cologne, the study of jurisprudence, probably in the form of church or "canon law," was already gaining decidedly on the study of theology proper. Not quite 71 per cent of the students of the three faculties of the university were studying law, 27 per cent were studying theology, and but 2 per cent were studying medicine. Sixty-five years later the law students had increased to 86 per cent, the theological students had fallen to 12 per cent, and the medical students were still 2 per cent of the whole body of students of law, theology, and medicine of the University of Cologne.
But a new business had in the meantime arisen-the business of studying for the sake of enlightenment; and it is fair to say that, though this effort was the result of the study of Greek literature, the way for the comprehension of that literature had been paved by the study of jurisprudence. The study of law, says Burke, is one of the first of human sciences, worth, in my opinion, all the others put together for quickening and invigorating the intellect, but is not so well adapted for opening and enlarging it. In 1400 there were 126 students in the University of Cologne, just
By Mr. Wellford Addis, specialist in the Bureau.
half of whom were in the faculty of liberal arts, such as it was then. In 1476 there were 607 students in the same university, 81 per cent or more of whom were in the faculty of liberal arts, such as it had become. In the same interval theology had fallen from 11 per cent of the whole attendance at the university to 1.8 per cent, law from 28 to 12.5 per cent, and medicine was nowhere.
In 1476, however, the University of Cologne had lived nearly a century; it perhaps had become antiquated and had "traditions;" but the University of Halle, founded in 1693, represented new ideas in Germany even after the crushing and blinding effect of the religious wars and excitement of that and the preceding century. This is shown by statistics of 1693-1700 in the following table:
It is evident, therefore, that, while in England and France what is represented by the German faculty of philosophy was drawing the brightest minds away from theology in Germany during the eighteenth century, the faculty of theology seems to have obliterated the faculties of philosophy and medicine and dwarfed that of jurisprudence. It must be remembered that church and state were very intimately connected in Prussia (as has been remarked by Professor Paulsen in his Die Deutsche Universitäten) until the present century, the first decade of which saw the liberation of the serfs and the right of others than noblemen to hold public office.
Passing now to the eighth decade of the present century, the importance which the study of medicine is assuming is at once noticed by glancing at the following diagrams (pp. 1189 and 1190); and medicine is the embodiment of science, as jurisprudence is of ethics and theology of metaphysics or the immaterial part of the world.1 It is hoped that the intimate relation between the learned professions and the susceptibility of an age to favor a certain class of practitioners has been shown. In the sequel an attempt is made to show what is being done at home and abroad to prepare physicians for their responsibilities in the age of medical science.
I. THE PREPARATION FOR THE STUDY OF THE LEARNED PROFESSIONS. As the student of the history of medical instruction in the United States runs over the discussions of that question since 1850, the date at which an interest in the subject began to be awakened, he is impressed by the value which medical practitioners place upon a "college training," and their distrust of mere mother wit and the practical instinct of the Anglo-Saxon. As early as 1847 Drs. Ware, Bigelow, and Holmes, all teachers of medicine, declare that the only means known to them of elevating the profession of medicine is either to require that the applicant for admission to a medical school be a graduate of a college or that the course of study in the medical school be made to cover a longer period. Though it is evident that the second alternative presented by the committee of Harvard professors in the report above quoted was adopted when a change was made, about the beginning of this decade, yet it is to be borne in mind that in the catalogue of Harvard University for 1897-98 the following announcement is made:
Beginning with the year 1901, candidates for admission to regular standing must present a college, scientific, or medical degree, or must satisfy the faculty of their having equivalent qualifications for membership in the school.
Considering a true science of anthropology to be something apart and above zoology and yet not invention, the characteristic of an "age of machinery."