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“ to write to the powers of Europe, Asia, and America ; and application was accordingly made to President Washington for our Indian languages, several specimens of which were accordingly furnished.” A portion of the results of those inquiries may be seen in the Transactions of the Academy of St. Petersburgh, in the accounts of Russian voyages of discovery, and in the works of various men of science, who have flourished under the patronage of the Empress and her successors.

From the materials thus collected, the celebrated production of the German philologists, Adelung and Vater, proceeded in part, which has been followed within a few years by the more finished and extended work of Balbi, published in France, but dedicated to the Emperor of Russia. In the former, the collection of American dialects was both incomplete and deficient in accuracy ; in the compilation of the latter, the author consulted the manuscript essay of Mr. Gallatin, in its original state, which is published in the present volume, after having been much enlarged by the addition of copious vocabularies and other appropriate matter.

The labors of other writers, who at different periods have bestowed their attention on the Indian languages, are to be referred to the first branch of investigations, limited to the distinct consideration of individual dialects. The works of Eliot, Cotton, Roger Williams, and Edwards, in New England ; the Dictionary of Father Rasle, illustrated by the learned and just discrimination of Pickering; and the researches of Heckewelder and Zeisberger, on whose data have been reared the philological hypotheses and acute disquisitions of Du Ponceau; are all of this class. It remained for Mr. Gallatin to bring together, in à comparative view, the languages and dialects of all the nations, so far as authentic specimens of them could be procured, and to describe the various analogies of structure and characteristic features existing among them. This we regard as the second step towards a complete philosophical view of the whole ground, now for the first time attempted on a scale commensurate with its importance, and executed in a manner, which

claims the merit of originality, while it brings to good account the labors of all preceding writers. *

At the request of the Committee, a list of books published in the Indian languages by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, was prepared by the Rev. David Greene, one of the Secretaries of the Board, and communicated for publication in the present volume; but, as it has been since given to the public through the medium of another work, which possesses a wide circulation, it is deemed sufficient to state here the number of books printed in each language. They are as follows: In Cherokee, 18 distinct works ; Choctaw, 19 do.; Creek or Musk hogee, 3 do.; Osage, 1 do.; Ojibway or Chippeway, 5 do.; Seneca, 4 do. ; Ottowa, 1 do.; Abenaki, 2 do ; Sioux, 1 do. With the exception of those in the Cherokee, which have been printed in the syllabic alphabet invented by Guess, one of the tribe, the works have been printed in the orthography proposed by Mr. Pickering, as a uniform method of writing the Indian languages. This we regard as a most important im. provement, which is calculated to obviate a very serious difficulty resulting from the various systems of orthography adopted by writers of different nations. In addition to the above list of publications by the Board, (which consist of elementary schoolbooks and religious works, prepared by the Missionaries, the Rev. Mr. Byington has composed a Grammar and Dictionary of the Choctaw language, the latter containing about 15,000 words, which may be hereafter published.

* In regard to the details of the publication, it may be proper to state that the correction of the press has been performed without the aid of the Author. The whole of the Introductory Essay, however, together with some other portions of the work, passed under the careful revision of a member of the Publishing Committee, (Mr. Folsom,) by whom the entire duties of the Committee, in reference to the present volume, have been performed, in consequence of the engagements of the other members.

| Missionary Herald, for July, 1836. Boston.
| Mem. Am. Acad. Vol. IV.
VOL. II.

b

It is unnecessary to speak here of the other portions of the volume now presented to the public. They will be preceded by distinct notices illustrative of their origin and design, where it may

be desirable for the information of the reader. A considerable period has been suffered to elapse since the publication of the first volume of the Transactions and Collections of this Society ; but, in the mean time, its general interests have not been neglected. The munificent bequests of Dr. Tuomas, making provision, among other objects, for the support of a resident Librarian, whose attention should be wholly devoted to the duties of the office, enabled the Society to secure the valuable services of Mr. Baldwin, the late incumbent. A just idea of what was accomplished by that gentleman, during the few years of his official labors, is conveyed in the well-deserved tribute to his memory, from the pen of Governor Davis, contained in the present volume.

But, while the flourishing condition of the Society affords good cause of congratulation, it should be borne in mind, that the active and zealous coöperation of its friends is required to develope and apply the resources placed at their command for the promotion of its objects. Original contributions, as well as rare documents, illustrative of the history and antiquities of any portion of the continent, will always receive the respectful attention of the Publishing Committee ; and, as the causes that have retarded the appearance of the present volume are not expected to occur again, it may be confidently anticipated, that in future the publications of the Society will be made at regular and less protracted intervals.

CONTENT S.

XV

Page
Oficers of the Society for 1835 -6,
A Memoir of Isaiah Thomas, LL. D., First President

of the American Antiquarian Society. By Samuel
M. BURNSIDE, Esq.,

хvіі

.

I. A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America.

By ALBERT GALLATIN, LL. D.

INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.

9

ib. 14

16

Sect. I. Indian Tribes north of the United States,

Eskimaux,
Kinai, Koluschen, &c., on the Pacific Ocean,
Athapascas, (Northern, Cheppeyans, Copper Mine,

&c., Sussees, Tacullies) Sect. II. Algonkin-Lenape and Iroquois,

Algonkin-Lenape,
Northern, (Knistinaux, Algonkins, Chippeways, Ot-

towas, Potowotamies, Mississagues,)
Northeastern, (Labrador, Micmacs, Etchemins,

Abenakis,)
Eastern, (New England, Mohicans, Manhattans,

Long Island, Delawares and Minsi, Nanticokes,
Susquehannocks, Conoys, Powhatans, Mannahoks,
Pamlicoes,)

21 23

ib.

30

33

Page

Western, (Menomonies, Sauks, Foxes, Kickapoos

and Mascoutins, Miamis and Piankishaws, Illinois,

Shawnoes,)

60

Iroquois,

69

Northern, (Wyandots or Hurons, Extinct Tribes,

Five Nations)

ib.

Southern, (Tuteloes, Nottoways, Tuscaroras,)

Sect. III. Southern Indians, (east of the Mississippi and in Louisiana,)

Extinct Tribes of Carolina,

83

Catawbas; Cherokees (Guess's alphabet)

87

Muskhogees (proper, Seminoles, Hitchittees,)

94

Uchees; Natchez,

95

Alibamons and Coosadas,

96

Choctaws and Chicasas,

98

Southern Indians at the time of De Soto's expedition, 102

Their social state (division into clans, worship of the

sun, monarchical government; Natchez)

107

Tribes of Lower Louisiana, east and west of the Mis-

sissippi (great diversity of languages),

114

Sect. IV. Indians west of the Mississippi,

a. East of the Rocky Mountains,

120

Sioux (Winebagoes, Dahcotas and Assiniboins,

Shyennes, Minetares, Mandares, Crows, Quappas;

Osages, Kansaws, Ioways, Missouris, Ottoes,

Omahaws, Puncas,)

ib

Pawnees and Ricaras; habits of western Indians, 128

Black Feet, Rapid Indians, other erratic tribes, 132

b. West of the Rocky Mountains,

134

Want of vocabularies; Salish, Atnahs, Shoshonees,

Chinooks,

ib.

Sect. V. General Observations,

Climate; forests and prairies; geographical notices, 136

Conjectures (Asiatic origin; semi-civilization of Mexico;

ancient works in United States,)

142

Means of subsistence, (hunter state; agricultural labor

confined to women,)

149

Labor the only means of preserving and civilizing the

Indians, (Cherokee civilization,

154

Sect. VI. Indian Languages.

Diversity of vocabularies and similarity of grammatical

forms; gender and number,

160

Substantive verb; conversion of nouns, &c. into verbs,

reciprocal; pronouns,

174

Transitions,

183

Tenses and moods, compound words, multiplied forms,

defective information,

197

Suggestions respecting highly inflected languages, 201

Grammatical forms in the earliest stages of society, 206

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