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on the heads of rivers emptying into the Chesapeake. Mr. Miller, President of the Ebenezer Academy in South Carolina, bas given me the following information. “My father was one of the first settlers in the Wanhaw settlement. I have heard him frequently speak of cruel and bloody scenes between the Catawbas and Shawnees. From what I have heard him say, the Cherokees, probably at an early period of the settlement of the Carolinas, occupied a section of country now partly in York County, South Carolina, and partly in Mecklenberg, North Carolina, known in the colonial histories as Craven County. The Cherokees were driven by the Shawnees, and the Shawnees were driven in their turn by the Catawbas.” It is clear that this Shawnoe setilement is the same which was mentioned by Lawson, and that it was situated on the head waters of the Catawba or Santee, and probably of the Yadkin or Pedee.
Lawson expressly distinguishes those Savanoes or Shawnoes settled on the head of one of the rivers of South Carolina, from the Savannahs, “a famous warlike friendly nation, living to the south end of Ashley River.” These Savannahs are mentioned by the earliest Carolina writers and by Hewatt under the name of Serannas. That tribe was probably called at first Savannahs by the European settlers on account of their vicinity to the river of that name; and they appear to me to be the same which was afterwards designated by its true Indian name of Yamassees.
M'Call, in his “ History of Georgia,” mentions that, in the year 1750, a Quaker settlement had been formed west of Augusta, on a body of land, which had formerly been owned by a tribe, called the Savannahs, who had been compelled to abandon it, in consequence of a war with the Uchees, who claimed the land adjoining them to the southward. Whether they were a residue of the Savannahs formerly living south of Asbley River, or of our Shawnoes, cannot be ascertained. It has been stated to me, on verbal but respectable authority, that some Shawnoes were for a while settled on the Savannah above Augusta ; and it is certain, that they were at war with the Cherokees and received on friendly terms by the Creeks.
Adair, who alludes to those wars between the Shawnoes and the Cherokees, met, about the year 1740, in the wilderness a large encampment of Shawnoes, who, after having wandered
several years in the woods, were then returning to the Creek country.
We know from Mr. Johnston, the Indian Agent, that a body of them, who had originally lived north of the Ohio, had, at some anterior time and from causes not explained, migrated as far south as the Suwanee river, which empties into the Gulf of Mexico and is supposed 10 derive its name from them ; and that they returned thence, about the year 1755, to the vicinity of Sandusky, under the conduct of a chief called Black Hoof. It has been reported, that Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, were sons of a Creek woman married during that migration to a Shawnoe.
At the time when William Penn landed in Pennsylvania, they were found in the vicinity of Philadelphia, and have left the name of one of their tribes (Piqua) to a small river in Lancaster county.
And their name is found in the year 1701, to an agreement with William Penn, ratifying a sale to him of lands on the Susquehanna by the Conestogo Indians. It is, however, evident that, at that time, they were tenants at will under the Six Nations; and they soon after are found living on a similar tenure on the western branches of the Susquehanna. Evans, in the Analysis of his Map, says that their original seats extended from Kentucky river southwest to the Mississippi, that they were afterwards scattered into all parts, and that, in the year 1755, they again collected on the Ohio.
From these scattered notices, it may be conjectured that, as stated by the Sauks and Foxes, the Shawnoes separated at an early date from the other Lenape tribes, and established themselves south of the Ohio in what is now the State of Kentucky*; that, having been driven away from that territory, probably by the Chickasaws and Cherokees, some portion of them found their way, during the first half of the seventeenth century, as far east as the country of the Susquehannocks, a kindred Lenape tribe ; that the main body of the nation, invited by the Miamis and the Andastes, crossed the Ohio, occupied the country on and adjacent to the Scioto, and joined in the war against the Five Nations; and that, after their final defeat and that of their allies in the year 1672, the dispersion
* The name of the river Kentucky is Shawnoese, and means," At the head of a river.” See Johnston's Account, 1 Trans. Am. Antiq. Society, p. 299.
alluded to by Evans, took place. A considerable portion made about that time a forcible settlement on the head waters of the rivers of Carolina; and these, after baving been driven away by the Catawbas, found, as others had already done, an asylum in different parts of the Creek country. Another portion joined their brethren in Pennsylvania ; and some may have remained in the vicinity of the Scioto and Sandusky.
Those in Pennsylvania, who seem to have been the most considerable part of the nation, were not entirely subjugated and reduced to the humiliating state of women by the Six Nations. But they held their lands on the Susquehanna only as tenants at will, and were always obliged to acknowledge a kind of sovereignty or superiority in their landlords. They appear to have been more early and more unanimous than the Delawares, in their determination to return to the country north of the Ohio. This they effected under the auspices of the Wyandots, and on the invitation of the French, during the years 1740 — 1755. They occupied there the Scioto country, extending to Sandusky, and westwardly towards the Great Miami, and they have also lest there the names of two of their tribes, to wit, Chillicothe and Piqua. Those who were settled amongst the Creeks joined them; and the nation was once more reunited.
During the forty following years, they were in an almost perpetual state of war with America, either as British Colonies, or as independent States. They were among the most active allies of the French during the seven years' war, and, after the conquest of Canada, continued, in concert with the Delawares, hostilities which were only terminated after the successful campaign of General Bouquet. The first permanent settlements of the Americans beyond the Alleghany mountains, in the vicinity of the Ohio, were commenced in the year 1769, and were almost immedately attended with a new
war with the Shawnoes, which ended in 1774, after they had been repulsed in a severe engagement at the mouth of the Kanbawa, and the Virginians had penetrated into their country. They took a most active part against America, both during the war of Independence, and in ihe Indian war which followed, and which was terminated in 1795, by the treaty of Greenville.
They lost, by that treaty, nearly the whole territory which they held from the Wyandots; and a part of them, under the guidance of Tecumseh, again joined the British standard
during the last war. They are now much dispersed; the greater part bave removed west of the Mississippi, and the number of these is estimated at about one thousand five hundred souls.
We have not so copious a vocabulary of their language as might have been expected. That which is appended has been chiefly extracted from that taken by Mr. Johnston, the Indian · Agent. The other words have been supplied from Mr. Jefferson's mutilated manuscript vocabulary, from the Mithridates, General Parsons, Smith Barton, &c.
The northern Iroquois tribes consisted of two distinct divisions; the eastern, forming the confederation, known by the name of Five Nations, whose original territory did not extend westwardly farther than the western boundary of Pennsylvania ; and the western, consisting, as far as can be ascertained, of four nations : the Wyandots, or Hurons, and the Altiouandarons, or Neutral Nation, north; the Erigas and the Andastes or Guandastogues (Guyandots), south of Lake Erie.
When Champlain arrived in Canada, the Five Nations were engaged in a deadly war with all the Algonkin tribes within their reach. It is remarkable, that the Wyandots, another Iroquois nation, were the head and principal support of the Algonkin confederacy. The extent of their influence and of the consideration in which they were held, may be found in the fact, that even the Delawares, who claimed to be the elder branch of the Lenape Nation and called themselves the grandfathers of their kindred tribes, recoguised the superiority of the Wyandots, whom to this day they call their uncles. And though reduced to a very small number, the right of the Wyandots, derived either from ancient sovereignty, or from the incorporation of the remnants of the three extinct tribes, to the country between Lake Erie and the Obio, from the Alleghany river to the great Miami, has never been disputed by any other than the Five Nations.
Their real name, Yendots, was well known to the French, who gave them the nickname of Hurons. They were called
Quatoghee by the Five Nations; and one of their tribes, Dionondadies or Tuinontatek. They were visited in 1915 by Champlain, and, in 1624, by Father Sagard. And the Jesuits, who subsequently established missions among them, have given, in the “Relations of New France,” some account of their language, and ample information of their means of subsistence, manners, and religious creed or superstitions. They had, probably on account of their wars with the Five Nations, concentrated their settlements in thirty-one villages, not extending more altogether than twenty leagues either way, and situated along or in the vicinity of Lake Huron, about one hundred miles southwardly of the mouth of French River. They consisted of five confederated tribes, viz. the Ataronch-ronons, four villages; the Attiquenongnahai, three villages; the Attignaouentan, or “Nation de l'Ours," twelve villages; the Ahrendah-ronons, the most northeastern tribe and that with which Champlain resided, three villages; and the Tionontate, or “ Nation of the Petun," the most southwesterly, wbich formerly had been at war with the other tribes, and had entered the confederation recently, nine villages.*
The smallpox carried off about twelve hundred souls in the year 1639. The Missionaries, principally with a view of baptizing dying children, visited at that time every village, and, with few exceptions, every cabin ; and embraced the opportunity of making a complete enumeration of the whole nation. They give the general result in round numbers, seven hundred cabins and two thousand families, which they estimate at twelve, but which could not have exceeded ten thousand souls. They were not only more warlike, but, in every respect, more advanced in civilization than the Northern Algonkins, particularly in agriculture, to which they appear, probably from their concentrated situation, to have been obliged to attend more extensively than any other northern Indian nation. The Missionaries had at first great hardships to encounter, and found them less tractable than the Algonkins. But, whether owing to the superior talents of Father Brebeuf, and his associates, or to the national character, they made ultimately more progress in converting the Hurons, and have left a more permanent impression of their labors in the remnant of that tribe, than appears to have been done by then, in any other nation without the boundaries of the French settlements.
* Father Lallemand, 1640. Relations, &c.