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far as the Apalachian mountains; which he admitted to be the bounds of the English plantations in America, and beyond which he denied that they had any pretensions.

“ This officer was directed not only to use his influence, to procure a number of Indians to accompany him, but to exact a promise from them, that they would not in future admit English traders among them. This officer was furnished with leaden plates, with the arms of France engraved on them, and he was ordered to bury thein at particular stations; a procès verbal was then drawn up, signed by himself and those officers that accompanied him. With this gentleman, Galissionière sent a letter to Mr. Hamilton, the governor of Pennsylvania, apprizing him of the step he had taken, and requesting that in future he would give orders to prevent his people from trading beyond the A palachian mountains, as he had received commands from the court of France to seize the merchants, and confiscate the goods of those trading in these countries, incontestably belonging to France. De Celeron discharged his commission with punctuality, but not without exciting the apprehensions of the natives, who declared that the object of France, in taking possession of their country, was either to make them subjects, or perhaps slaves. The immense load of procès verbaux that had been drawn up, on this expedition, was handed to Galissionière and transmitted to the court of France. As a recompense for his trouble, Celeron was, two years afterwards, appointed to the command of Detroit, with the rank of major."

Galissionière was appointed governor of Canada, 25th September, 1747, and the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, alluded to in the above extract, was concluded in 1748.

This leaden monument must have been originally deposited at the mouth of the Venango, above Pittsburg. Its change of location to near the mouth of the Muskingum, must have been made by some person at a subsequent period, ignorant of its original design.

This is among other proofs of the unwearied efforts of France, to assert and establish her claim over that vast and fertile region, which now constitutes the Western and South-western States of our confederacy.

DE WITT CLINTON.

IV.

TIIE

RUINS OF COPAN,

IN CENTRAL AMERICA.

By His Excellency Don JUAN GALINDO.

NOTE.

The following paper was written at Copan, by Colonel Galindo, late Governor of the Province of Peten, in Central America, and was cominunicated to the President of the Society last year, during a visit of the author on a diplomatic mission to this country. It may be regarded as a brief, though highly satisfactory, exhibition of the researches of Colonel Galindo, in reference to a part of the American continent, whose remote history is but little understood, and can only be gathered from a patient and faithful examination of the relics of a former age, and the traces of an extinct population.

The investigations of the author, if prosecuted in the philosophical spirit, and with the ardent zeal, by which they have been distinguished in their commencement, cannot fail to throw a strong light on these important subjects; and it is with great satisfaction that we are informed they have already attracted the attention of the Royal Society of London, to whom a paper has been likewise addressed by Colonel Galindo. We are also gratified to learn, that in a recent communication to the President, Colonel Galindo has intimated his intention of favoring our Society with another memoir, on the subject of the ruins of Palenque, which, as well as that now published, cannot fail to possess great interest for the students of American antiquities.

PUBLISHING COMMITTEE.

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LETTER FROM COLONEL GALINDO.

To the Hon. Thomas L. WINTHROP,

President of the American Antiquarian Society,

Boston, Massachusetts.

Copan, June 19th, 1835. SIR, Desirous of comparing the antiquities of the Central continent, and considering myself as somewhat experienced in such inquiries, I arrived here in April last, and have dedicated particular attention to examine every vestige and fact connected with the history and existing remains of this ruined city.

Many may smile at our ideas of the word antiquity, when informed that this place has only fallen to ruin since the Spanish conquest in 1530; but the victors were so careless of every thing except gain, and so dispersed and tyrannized over the wretched aborigines, that even the memory of this place was almost obliterated; though its extent and former civilization are evidenced by the colossal mounts of stones, both in their natural state and squared; obelisks, some standing and some fallen; tables and large blocks of carved stone; busts, and various fragments of sculpture and earthenware.

Now that the rulers of these regions have a direct and affectionate interest in their fame and history, we dedicate ourselves to its study, and endeavour to rescue from the destroying course of time, whatever of facts or monuments remain. The government of Central America intends publishing, in Castilian, a long report I have drawn up with relation to the ruins and history of this place, with various plans, views, and copies of figures and inscriptions; I therefore at present confine myself to a few remarks.

The Indian human race of America, I must assert, to be the most ancient on the globe. However the white race, led by a foolish vanity, may assume to be the progenitor of the human family, it is probable that at a very recent epoch it has issued from the regions of the Caucasus, inundating Europe, extending itself over America, and with the energy of its youth and

69

VOL. II.

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