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were common in many localities; when the old régime had not entirely passed nor the new been fully installed; when hostile operations continued by both the American and Spanish troops against these moving banditti, each force operating within the territory controlled by itin fact, a period of evacuation, occupation, and transition.
The third period began on October 18, when the government of the islands and of its inhabitants was strictly military; a period when, in a technical sense, a state of war still continued, yet no opposing armies contended for mastery. This period ended on April 11, 1899, when the treaty of peace was ratified and proclaimed by the President, a date which marks the conclusion of the state of war and the resumption of peaceable relations by the United States and Spain. During this and the preceding periods the laws of the United States recognized and authorized the use of the military commission for enforcement of martial law among the civil populace as well as in the army.
The fourth period extended from the date of signing of the treaty of peace to the 1st day of May of the current year, after which date only the laws of the land could be enforced and those through civil instrumentality only:
The commander of the troops in Porto Rico was assigned to his trust by the President of the United States, and by virtue of his assignment the local commander became the personal representative of the Chief Executive, who was the Commander in Chief of the Army; and as Congress had taken no action respecting the government of Porto Rico, the supreme government of the country was lodged in the commanding general.
His duties, responsibilities, and powers were specified and limited in a very general manner in certain orders of the President, which had been communicated to the army; but those orders left to the military commander a very wide discretion, an almost complete power over executive administration and legislative matters.
The use which has been made of these powers by the army commander is now a matter of history, and the country and the world will judge whether or not military rule over this conquered territory has been wise and prudent and conducive to the best interests of the people, or the opposite.
On April 30, the machinery of civil government was in the charge of experienced public officers, and the organization, with departments, bureaus, and other branches, both insular and municipal, was such that the new government ordered by Congress to be instituted could the following day be launched and carried forward in an efficient and economic manner.
The courts of the island were all in the discharge of their proper functions. The dockets were not crowded as they were a year before. The prisons and jails were well kept and were not overflowing. The public highways were in fine condition and were being rapidly extended. The amount that could be spared from the treasury for education was being applied in such a manner as to give instruction according to modern methods to over 30,000 children. The laws of taxation had been so changed that very heavy and onerous burdens had been removed from the poor.
In office in every municipality were officers who in every instance were the choice of the electors, thus granting to municipalities almost complete autonomy.
Life and property were everywhere secure, and this without the use of troops for protection. Notwithstanding the most grievous losses suffered by the people from raids of banditti, from arson, from disturbance of trade relations, from losses of Spanish markets without corresponding gains elsewhere, from unsettled conditions resulting from the use of a currency which suffered a heavy discount when referred to a gold basis, and, finally, from the almost overwhelming disaster of August of last year, when seven-tenths of all the maturing crops were blotted out of existence-notwithstanding all these obstacles and burdens the military governor was able to turn over to the civil governor the comfortable balance in the insular treasury of over $300,000.
As commander of the military department of Porto Rico, and the last military governor, I think I may not inappropriately say that the trust contided to the Army by the President and the people has not been abused, but instead has been wisely and justly exercised in the interest of and for the benefit of the inhabitants of this beautiful island.
The officers and men of this command have given me most loyal and able support during the year, which has been a year of severe labor and anxiety for all. The civil duties which were devolved upon the Army were strange and to many they were especially irksome. I believe that every assigned duty has been well done; that every pound of food and dollar of money committed into the hands of officers and men were correctly applied and properly accounted for to the ounce and penny, and I know that neither officer nor soldier received or asked for addition to his pay in the form of extra compensation, emolument, or allowance from the United States or insular treasury. Very respectfully,
GEO. W. DAVIS, Brigadier-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding.
REPORT OF CAPT. ROBERT N. GETTY, FIRST U. S. INFANTRY,
COMMANDANT UNITED STATES INFANTRY AND CAVALRY SCHOOL.
UNITED STATES INFANTRY AND CAVALRY SCHOOL,
Fort Leavenworth, Kans., June 30, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY,
Washington, D. C. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report pertaining to the United States Infantry and Cavalry School for the year ending June 30, 1900:
Capt. W. B. Reynolds, Fourteenth Infantry, was relieved as commandant July 13, 1899, by Capt. George H. Sands, Sixtb Cavalry, relieved by Capt. R. B. Paddock, Sixth Cavalry, August 17, 1899, relieved by Capt. E. E. Benjamin, First Infantry, September 22, 1899, relieved by Capt. R. N. Getty, First Infantry, October 13, 1899.
The purchase of new instruments and repair of old ones in the department of engineering as recommended in report of Maj. J. A.
Augur, June 30, 1899, has been made, and instruments repaired and adjusted.
The present arrangement of the photographic branch of the department of engineering is very unsatisfactory. Part of the instruments are stored on the second floor, the dark rooms are in one end of the basement, while the blue-print room and enlarging apparatus are at the other end. Then, certain of the work is done in a small building about 70 yards from Sherman Hall. Due to a large addition to the main building, the present blue-print room is so placed that the frame can be exposed to the sun's rays for only a few hours in the afternoon. The entire building has been gone over with a view to changing the location of this apparatus, but there is no place except the attic, which is not at all suitable and would require almost as much money in fitting up as would be needed in building a new house.
This branch of engineering is of great importance in the school, and with the present arrangement the instructors will be seriously hampered and unable to procure the best results.
The report of the secretary includes a sketch of a photographic studio which would fully answer the needs of the institution. It has been gone over carefully by the secretary and the photographer of the school. As it conforms to the available ground, the apparatus on hand, and the requirements of the school, it is recommended that it be placed with as little change as possible from the plan submitted.
The following defects are noted in Sherman Hall and should be remedied if a larger class for the school is contemplated:
Library. Shelves getting overcrowded. Two new stacks would ease matters for a year or so; afterwards same condition would exist.
Lecture room.–View of rostrum and blackboard obstructed by a row of pillars down center of room.
Drafting room.-Cramped quarters. In overlooking work when whole class (of 45) is drawing in this room, instructors have to move edgewise among the tables. Room for this work should have floor space enough to accommodate whole class-ample room for each student and for instructors to circulate among the tables. Light comes from only two directions_5 windows in the east and 2 in the south. Students placed on west side or in northwest corner usually elect to carry their drawing materials into lecture room, so as to be nearer windows. This involves duplicating instructions written on blackboard or given orally, which is inconvenient for the instructor and requires care that the two sets of instructions shall be identical. The curriculum imposes enough wear on the eyes of those undergoing the course, and the drafting room should be the best lighted room in the building.
The conversion of the school building from its present T shape into the form of an H would give the architect an opportunity to design a lecture room having a clear field of view from all points and with permanent seats and desks arranged on a theatrical plan. The present lecture and drawing rooms are used for examinations, but the above arrangement would serve much better.
On the west end could be placed a drafting room, getting light from three sides, and of dimensions commensurate with the size of any class that will ever be sent here.
On the floor above could be placed the photographic studio proposed elsewhere.
The recommendation of the secretary to purchase more type for the purpose of printing a library catalogue is concurred in, and also the employment of a civilian printer.
The recommendation that the compensation of the assistant to the secretary (Alfred Robertson) be increased to $1,200 per annum is renewed. Very respectfully,
ROBERT N. GETTY,
Captain, First Infantry, Commandant United States Infantry and Cavalry School.
UNITED STATES INFANTRY AND CAVALRY SCHOOL,
Fort Leavenworth, Kans., June 30, 1900. The COMMANDANT UNITED STATES INFANTRY AND CAVALRY School,
Fort Leavenworth, Kans. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith my report as secretary and disbursing officer of the United States Infantry and Cavalry School for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900.
During the past year the following changes have been made in the personnel:
Maj.J.A. Augur, Fourth Cavalry, commandant....
June 29, 1899 June 29, 1899 July 13, 1899 July 13, 1899 Aug. 17, 1899 Aug. 17, 1899 Sept. 22, 1899 Sept. 22, 1899 Oct. 13, 1899 Oct. 13, 1899
June 30, 1899 June 30, 1899 June 19, 1900 June 19, 1900
During the year 212 works have been purchased for the library, a number of books and pamphlets have been bound or rebound, and most of the unmounted maps on hand have been mounted on linen.
A card-index outfit has been purchased and the work of card indexing the books on hand commenced. When this work is completed the library will be able to issue a printed catalogue of real value to borrowerg.
A supply of new instruments has been added to the department of engineering, and there are now on hand sufficient of the instruments generally issued to students to equip a class of 60. A supply of drawing material has also been purchased for this department.
Most of the old-fashioned type formerly on hand was useless for school purposes. It has been condemned and replaced to a considerable extent by new type, but more type must be purchased before the printing office can undertake a large job, such as the printing of a library catalogue.
The arrangements for heating the school are very unsatisfactory. In cold weather the building is kept warmer when supplied with steam from the boiler in the quartermaster's shops, over 70 yards in rear of the school, than when heated by the boiler in Sherman Hall. It has been found necessary for the comfort of instructors to place stoves in their offices; otherwise the rooms would be untenable. The same has not been done in the section rooms, but, nevertheless, during the winter months when c!asses are assembled complaints are of daily occurrence. This condition of affairs will have to be remedied sooner or later, and the matter should not be left until the arrival of another class before it is attended to.
At present the building is lighted with oil lamps, of which there are a large number scattered about the building. It is recommended that power be provided by which the printing presses and an electrical plant could be run and that the building be wired for electric lighting. This would require one 20-horsepower engine, one 35-horsepower boiler, one 3-horsepower electric motor, one 150-light dynamo, one switchboard, building wired for about 125 lights.
It is estimated that the cost of labor and materials for the above would amount to $1,525.
The printing office should be removed to the basement, far enough away from the section rooms to prevent the noise of printing presses and stapling machines being a distraction to occupants of section rooms during recitations. At present the basement is insufficiently lighted to permit of its being used as a printing office, but the windows could easily be enlarged and a few 16-candlepower lamps would supply any deficiency. The removal of the printing office would vacate a room admirably adapted for section-room purposes or the storage of the many instruments on hand in the department of engineering.
Proper accommodations for the photographic branch of the department of engineering should be made, as work in the different processes requires under present arrangements that students travel all over the basement, sometimes to the second floor, and often to the studio, 50 yards away from the school. It is suggested that a photographic studio be built in rear of the school (see plans herewith). The enlarging camera and blue-print frame each require a separate room, and the copying studio requires special arrangements in lighting which can not be had in the present studio, a “studio” only in name. The installment of the electrical plant referred to above would permit photographic work to be carried on regardless of weather conditions.
The matter of the employment of a civilian printer is again urged, as it is impossible to get efficient enlisted men from the garrison. The last "printer” employed did not know how type was distributed in the cases.
The allotment for the fiscal year 1900 has been expended as follows: Stationery, office supplies and material, and card-index outfit..
$194. 50 Library: Purchase of books.
$719.99 Subscriptions to periodicals, binding, and material for map mounting..
874. 06 Engineering instruments and materials ...
895. 49 Printing office: Materials
J. N. PICKERING,
First Lieutenant, First Infantry, Secretary United States Infantry and Cavalry School.