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near perfect as possible. Last year, in July, a soldier died of yellow fever at Columbia Barracks, and six months afterwards another died at Guanajay Barracks, some 22 miles distant. The source of infection could not be traced. In August, 1899, there were in the Second Artillery in Fort Cabañas 1 officer and 22 men with yellow fever. Seven died. It was due to placing the soldiers in an old infected Spanish fort. Now the garrison is located in barracks built on outside, and is healthy.
In May of this year yellow fever appeared on “General Lee street," Quemados, where most of the Americans lived, and spread until finally up to June 30, the end of the year to which this report refers, there were 32 cases and 8 deaths, as follows:
Making in all 50 cases and 12 deaths.
Three of the members of my staff had it, viz., Maj. Frank H. Edmunds, First Infantry, inspector-general of the department; Maj. J. R. Kean, chief surgeon of the department, and Capt. Charles B. Hepburn, chief signal officer of the department. Major Edmunds died, and the other two recovered. Major Edmunds and Captain Hepburn lived on the infected street, and Surgeon Kean frequently visited it. Prompt and successful measures were taken to suppress the disease; all saloons, houses of prostitution, and disreputable places generally were closed, and all nonimmunes were ordered into tents pitched a little distance from the town. Houses infected by fever and all their contents were thoroughly disinfected, and no soldiers were allowed to enter the town; but no one knows how, where, or when fresh fevercases inay occur; though it is not probable it will again make its appearance this year.
Satisfactory results have been obtained in my command from the establishment and maintenance of canteens. Not all American soldiers have perfect habits. Conditions have to be met as they actually exist. There is no question but that the canteen affords an outlet to those soldiers who are more or less inclined to the drinking habit, and also keeps them in camp, when otherwise they would be running out to the nearest grogshop where only the worst liquors are served. My former inspector general, the late Major Edmunds, of the First Infantry, recently accompanied me on an inspection of Batteries 0, M, G,
N and H, Second Artillery, which are stationed upon the outskirts of Habana. In the closing sentence of his official report of that inspec
. tion he says: “Although it was just after pay day, there was not a man in the entire command inspected who showed any effects of the use of intoxicating liquor," and adds that the officers of these commands "united in saying that since the establishment of the canteen at these batteries there have been less sickness, fewer trials, and better discipline, and no case of alcoholism, the latter of which often happened under previous conditions.”
The batteries were originally under the command of General Ludlow, during which time canteens were prohibited. After they came under my command canteens were allowed. This, therefore, is a practical illustration of the same troops in the same stations without a canteen and with a canteen.
There are five district jails in Habana Province and four in the province of Pinar del Río. It is presumed General Wilson's annual report will embrace the jails in Matanzas and Santa Clara. These jails have been inspected regularly and were at first in a very unsatisfactory condition. Prisoners were found in confinement who had been held for many months for trivial offenses without trial, and in some cases they did not know what they were charged with nor could the jail officials tell. These prisoners have all been released and the jails put in a satisfactory condition at an expense of $20,344.34. Salaries due jail officials for seven and eight months previous were all paid up to the first of July, since which time the department commander has had nothing to do with them.
All public funds have been conscientiously handled during the past fiscal year in the Department of the Province of Habana and Pinar del Río and later in the Department of Habana and Pinar del Río; the amount allotted, received, and disbursed during that time being $267,395.30, the first by Capt. H. J. Slocum, Seventh Cavalry, disbursing officer of the department, until he was obliged to take a sick leave, and since the latter part of June his duties have been discharged by Maj. George S. Cartwright, chief quartermaster of the department.
There is one company of rural guards in the provinces of Habana and Pinar del Río, consisting of 3 officers, 16 noncommissioned officers, and 90 privates. These guards are stationed about at various locations within the limits of the department to preserve law, order, and peace in the rural districts. They are required to carry out instructions from the different alcaldes and to assist the rural police when called upon to suppress disorders. The guards are nearly all ex-Cuban soldiers, well acquainted with the country and people, and carefully selected from a large number of applicants, and have been successful in recovering stolen property and breaking up cattle and horse stealing. They are armed with the .44-caliber Remington carbine. These arms are kept well cleaned and oiled, and each trooper carries 12 cartridges and a machete; clothing and equipments in good condition, and they are fairly well mounted on native ponies. For this service during the last fiscal year $53,474.99 has been paid.
Attention is called to the report of First Lieut. H. F. Jackson, Second Artillery, acting engineer officer. Extensive road building has been carried on in various sections of the department. Columbia Barracks has been united by a fine avenue to the Almendares River, over which a pontoon bridge has been thrown, and from which roads lead via
Vedado, where connection is made with the posts of the Second Artillery and on to Habana, and by the Colon Cemetery also to Habana, thus affording means to rapidly throw troops, if necessary, into Habana by two routes, in addition to the existing calzada from Marianao and Quemados to that city. The business of the signal department has been satisfactorily carried
The necessary telegraph and telephone lines have been run in the department and kept in good working order. The department headquarters has been placed by a telephone system in connection with 18 offices, including the residences of officers in and around Quemados and 54 in and around Habana, as well as telegraph communication with all the world.
Accompanying this report are the reports of the staff officers at the head of the various departments and commanding officers of the different posts. I take pleasure in calling your attention to their able and comprehensive statements, and to add my testimony that their duties have been satisfactorily and conscientiously discharged.
These reports are:
No. 1. Maj. R. E. L. Michie, assistant adjutant-general, U. S. Volunteers, adjutant-general.
No. 2. Maj. G. S. Grimes, Second Artillery, acting inspectorgeneral.
No. 3. Maj. G. M. Dunn, judge-advocate, U. S. Volunteers, judgeadvocate.
No. 4. Maj. G. S. Cartwright, quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, chief quartermaster.
No. 5. Maj. J. R. Kean, surgeon, U. S. Volunteers, chief surgeon.
No. 6. Maj. J. W. Dawes, additional paymaster, U. S. Volunteers, chief paymaster.
No. 7. Capt. H. S. Whipple, Third Cavalry, acting chief commissary. No. 8. First Lieut. H. F. Jackson, Second Artillery, engineer officer.
No. 9. Maj. G. S. Cartwright, quartermaster, U.S. Volunteers, disbursing officer.
No. 10. Second Lieut. C. R. Day, Seventh Cavalry, aid, acting signal officer.
No. 11. Capt. Frederick Perkins, Eighth Infantry, acting inspectorgeneral.
No. 12. Second Lieut. C. R. Day, Seventh Cavalry, aid, acting superintendent of jails.
No. 13. Second Lieut. C. R. Day, Seventh Cavalry, aid, acting superintendent rural guards.
No. 14. Col. T. A. Baldwin, Seventh Cavalry, commanding Columbia Barracks.
No. 15. Col. A. A. Harbach, First Infantry, commanding Pinar del Río Barracks.
No. 16. Col. W. L. Haskin, Second Artillery, commanding artillery defensey of Habana.
No. 17. Maj. F. A. Smith, First Infantry, commanding Guanajay Barracks.
I have the honor also to add a copy of Circular Order No. 1, Headquarters Department of Western Cuba, dated August 10, 1900. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
FITZHUGH LEE, Brigadier-General, Commanding.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WESTERN CUBA,
Quemados, Cuba, August 10, 1900. The department commander announces for the benefit of all concerned that he does not propose to interfere with the civil authorities within the geographical limits of his command, except to maintain public order and protect the lives and property of all persons residing therein.
Harmony and mutual support should prevail between the civil and military officials. The former are charged with the conduct of civil affairs and all communications from them relating to civil matters must be made to the civil heads of the department in Habana to which they respectively refer and not to the military commander of the Department of Western Cuba.
The municipal police of the various towns are directly under the control of the local authorities, and will not in any way be interfered with except in cases where they are unable to preserve the peace.
The rural guards are under the orders of the military commander of the department, to be moved when necessary from place to place. They are also to be employed when essential to reinforce the municipal police, and in turn will be augmented by American soldiers only when all other methods have been exhausted.
The department commander is not charged with the sanitation of towns except those located at or in the vicinity of the station of United States troops. All other towns must regulate their own sanitary regulations and provide for the health of their own citizens. Where unable to do so, the local authorities should appeal for assistance to the head of the department in Habana.
FitzhuGH LEE, Brigadier-General, Commanding.
REPORT OF COL. SAMUEL M. WHITSIDE, COMMANDING THE
DEPARTMENT OF SANTIAGO AND PUERTO PRINCIPE.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF SANTIAGO
AND PUERTO PRINCIPE,
Santiago de Cuba, June 30, 1900, . The ADJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY.
(Through Headquarters Division of Cuba.) Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of this department for the year ending June 30, 1900. In obedience to General Orders No. 1, Adjutant-General's Office, January 3, 1900, I assumed command of the Department of Santiago and Puerto Principe January 22, relieving Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood, U. S. Volunteers, appointed military governor of the island of Cuba.
There has been nothing in the condition of affairs in this department requiring special activity of the troops, and their movements have been confined to the usual practice marches, field exercises, target practice, and a few minor changes of station.
INSPECTION OF POSTS.
The provisions of paragraph 193, Army Regulations, have been carried out by a personal inspection of all the posts in the department and such personal examination and observation as assure me that the troops are efficient and well instructed; that the supplies are well distributed; that the transportation service is satisfactory; that public property is properly cared for, and that due economy is exercised in all public expenditures. The travel on these inspections has been by the U. S. army transport Wright by sea, and by ambulance, mounted
REPORT OF LIEUT. GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY.
travel, or rail in the interior. They were made between February and June. The troops are generally well housed. Barracks and officers' quarters have been built at Morro Castle. The Eighth Cavalry are still in camp near Puerto Principe and have been for a year, but plans for a six-company post have been approved by the division commander and work is expected to begin July 1. At the other posts the troops occupy old Spanish barracks, in some cases refitted and repaired since the American occupation. At posts where mounted troops are stationed good shed stables have been provided, generally with thatched roofs. The water supply depends mainly upon cisterns and wells, though at Morro Castle water is pumped from the San Juan River. At the Eighth Cavalry camp it is pumped from a creek some distance away, and at Baracoa it is piped in from the mountains several miles distant. The health of the troops has been good. Since December there have been no epidemic diseases in the department. One or two sporadic cases of yellow fever occurred at Nuevitas in June. The troops have been regularly paid. Post exchanges are in operation at all posts and have been successfully managed. The men were never so well fed and clothed as they are at this time. They are provided bathing facilities, reading rooms, exchanges, gymnasiumis, and outdoor exercises such as few of the men enjoyed before entering the service, but yet they desert. The number of desertions in the department during this year has been: Eighth Cavalry Tenth Cavalry Fifth Infantry Hospital Corps Signal Corps.. Total.....
70 The fault is not in the service but must be looked for on the outside. Young men are entering the service who do not like the confinement of military life, become homesick, and desert. Not much more in the way of food, clothing, amusements, and liberty can be granted them to make military life more attractive, and desertion will only cease when the certainty of arrest and adequate punishment will cause men to continue in service until discharged rather than suffer the disgrace and punishment which should be sure to follow desertion.
I desire to call attention to the necessity of building temporary quarters at an early date for the accommodation of officers stationed at San Luis. No suitable buildings can be rented in the town.
The last half of paragraph 767, Army Regulations, is, in my opinion, much overlooked, much matter going direct through purely staff channels that is there forbidden. This operates to the exclusion of much real authority over staff departments by those in command of troops. Line officers in command have few spheres of action that can not be curtailed by staff officers acting apparently independently and exercising really the functions of command which are forbidden them by regulations. Supplies obtained for departments are moved from place to place without the knowledge of the department commander. Orders given to department chiefs regarding supplies or property have to be referred to some higher staff officer, shorn by