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From this report it will also be seen that sanitation is carried on with vigor.
Recruits should be sent to regiments serving in Cuba from the first of November to the latter part of March. This period is a safe one and gives them a certain number of months to become acclimated and greatly increases the chances of avoiding malarial and other fevers prevalent in certain parts of the island.
In July of the past year it was found necessary to withdraw troops from Manzanillo and Bayamo and from the barracks situated in the suburbs of the city of Santiago, because of a serious outbreak of yellow fever. In Puerto Principe, the Fifteenth Infantry and Eighth Cavalry were withdrawn from the barracks in the suburbs of the city and placed in camp about 4 miles distant from the town. This move was also rendered necessary by an outbreak of yellow fever which threatened to become serious.
In the summer of 1899 the yellow fever seemed to be specially prevalent in the eastern provinces. This outbreak can be traced directly to infection from the towns in which, or near which, the barracks were situated. It is not difficult to disinfect barrack buildings and render them, so far as they are concerned, safe for occupancy, but it is impossible to thoroughly disinfect the cities and large towns in which they are situated, hence the necessity for the prompt withdrawal of troops in all cases of yellow fever appearing in barracks situated in towns or cities. In every instance with the withdrawal of troops from the barracks in question and placing them in camps on suitable ground with plenty of air and sunshine the spread of the fever has been promptly stopped. In the western provinces last year there was, as there always is, some fever; also in the city of Habana, and some few other scattered cases in some other towns, but it was not, what is considered in local parlance, a yellow-fever year. However, there is one very suggestive feature, and that is the continuance of a certain number of yellow-fever cases in Habana throughout the winter. This number remained stationary till the latter part of June, when it began to increase until August, when there were present in the city eighty-nine cases. The fever also appeared at Santa Clara, Pinar del Rio, Quemados, Guanajay and Columbia Barracks. At Santa Clara it was persistent and so threatening that the troops were moved out and the barracks abandoned. At Pinar del Rio and Guanajay the outbreak was serious, and temporary abandonment of the posts was only avoided by the troops garrisoning them being sent to the United States. At Columbia Barracks the fever has never made any headway, now and then an isolated case usually among civilians. At Quemados it acquired considerable headway but was finally checked by the vigorous sanitary measures adopted.
Special attention has been given to military instruction and the fine appearance of our soldiers. Their efficiency in drill and the high state of their discipline are conclusive proof that officers have given careful and personal attention toward attaining this degree of efficiency. On account of the climatic conditions cxisting, indoor instruction, theoretical and practical, has been had during the summer months, and the period from November to March has been set aside for outdoor drill, target practice, practice marches, reconnaissance, and scouting.
All troops intended for service in Cuba should be mounted troops, except necessary batteries of artillery and companies of infantry for garrison duty at two posts. Infantry engaged in active work in Cuba during the hot and rainy months, and even during the winter, will suffer severely from malaria, heat, and exhaustion, whereas mounted troops can perform hard service without bad results. The work required in Cuba is of such a character that the troops require to have a high degree of mobility. The climatic conditions are such that this mobility must be obtained with as little effort as possible on the part of the troops. My own experience has been that mounted men can do continuous and hard service in Cuba and retain their efficiency and that foot troops can not for any length of time perform duties calling for hard marching and exposure without suffering severely from malaria and the depressing effects of exposure to the sun. This is largely borne out by the experience of the Cubans. It is believed that the same general conditions pertain to Porto Rico and the Philippines, and, if we are to judge from the experience of the past two years and desire to have a thoroughly efficient, highly mobile force in the tropics, we must largely increase the present strength of the cavalry arm.
The work of the Army in connection with civil affairs will be taken up in detail in the civil report.
I desire to express my appreciation of the service of the following officers, especially of Brig. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, chief of staff, whose faithful and arduous services at these headquarters contributed largely to the reestablishment of the civil government:
Col. W. V. Richards, adjutant-general, whose able, devoted, and unremitting attention to duty rendered his services of the greatest value and finally resulted in a breakdown in health and necessitated his relief from duty in the division.
Col. H. L. Scott, for most able and efficient services as adjutantgeneral of the division.
Maj. J. B. Hickey, for faithful and eflicient services rendered in charge of the department of civil orders and proclamations.
Maj. E. St. John Greble, for the marked ability and energy with which he has conducted the reorganization of the charities and hospitals of the island.
Col. George H. Burton, for energetic, efficient, and thorough performance of the duties of inspector-general.
Maj. Edgar S. Dudley, for highly valuable and efficient services as judge-advocate, which involved a deep and thorough study of Spanish law and procedure.
Col. C. F. Humphrey, for efficient and able conduct of the duties of chief quartermaster.
Maj. 0. E. Wood, for able and efficient services as chief commissary of subsistence.
Maj. Valery Havard, for able and efficient services as chief surgeon.
Maj. Francis S. Dodge, for efficient performance of the duties of chief paymaster.
Maj. William M. Black, for exceedingly able and efficient services in connection with his duties as chief engineer, city of Habana and later of the division.
Capt. Ormond M. Lissak, for efficient services as chief ordnance officer.
Col. H. H. C. Dunwoody, for painstaking, intelligent, and, as chief signal officer, efficient services in the maintenance and establishment of telegraphic lines of the island.
To Maj. Tasker H. Bliss, for the most excellent and able manner in which he has conducted the customs service, rendering it efficient in the highest degree.
Maj. Eugene F. Ladd, for efficient conduct of the office of treasurer of the island.
Lieut. Edward C. Brooks, for able and efficient services as aid-decamp and later as auditor for the island.
Maj. R. H. Rolfe, for efficient services as assistant inspector-general.
Maj. D. T. Lainé, for faithful and efficient services as attending surgeon.
Maj. Marlborough C. Wyeth, for efficient services as medical supply officer.
Maj. W. C. Gorgas, for arduous and valuable services as chief sanitary officer, city of Habana.
Maj. William L. Pitcher, for extremely valuable and efficient services in charge of the police court, city of Habana, and supervisor of police.
Capt. Fred M. Page, attached, for faithful and able services in the department of civil orders and proclamations.
Capt. Edward B. Ives, for efficient services as disbursing officer and acting assistant quartermaster, volunteer signal corps.
Lieut. Matthew E. Hanna, aid-de-camp, for valuable and efficient services as engineer in charge of road construction, Department of Santiago; ordnance officer of the department and later for efficient and valuable services in the reorganization of schools of the island.
To Lieuts. Frank R. McCoy and Edward Carpenter, aids-de-camp, for faithful, efficient, and intelligent services in connection with civil affairs, in addition to their duties as aids.
To Mr. F. Steinhart, chief clerk, division headquarters, for his most able, faithful, and unremitting devotion to the duties of his office, thereby contributing much to the prompt and efficient conduct of official and civil business; also to the clerks of the office for faithful services and devotion to duty, the performance of which has necessitated throughout the year much overtime work and work on Sundays and holidays.
In conclusion I invite attention to the accompanying reports of the staff officers on duty at these headquarters and to the recommendations contained therein, which meet with my approval. Very respectfully,
LEONARD Wood, Major-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding.
FINAL REPORT OF BRIG. GEN. JAMES H. WILSON, U. S. VOLUN
TEERS, COMMANDING THE DEPARTMENT OF MATANZAS AND SANTA CLARA.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF
MATANZAS AND SANTA CLARA,
Matanzas, Cuba, July 22, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,
Washington, D. C. (Through military channels.) Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of affairs, both civil and military, for the Department of Matanzas and Santa Clara, during the fiscal year ending sune 30, 1900.
Of the United States forces serving in this department, the organizations have remained the same as at the close of the fiscal year 1899. There have been but a few gains and losses as to officers and men, as shown by the following table:
These troops have remained in the same quarters throughout the year, part of these quarters being repaired Spanish barracks, and part cheap frame buildings, with corrugated iron roofs. The necessary repairs and slight improvements have been made at the various posts. The most comfortable and satisfactory posts in the department are Rowell Barracks, at Pasa Caballos, and Hamilton Barracks, at Matanzas, but it is doubtful whether this additional comfort can be attributed to the new buildings erected at these two posts in accordance with American models. It is believed for the average location, away from the seacoast, that the Spanish barracks are preferable. The main disadvantage of these barracks is that they do not conform to the American system of having officers live in the immediate vicinity of the troops. In some instances we have been compelled to quarter officers some distance from their commands, and out of sight of them. In the cities some of the officers have lived at hotels, some in private houses, and all of them more scattered from the troops and from each other than is customary in our service. In other cases where they have been required to live in the immediate vicinity of their barracks, it has resulted in their being forced to live in quarters hardly suitable to officers of the American forces.
The number of officers absent from the troops and performing various civil and quasi civil duties, thereby affecting the instruction and efficiency of their regiments, has remained about the same throughout the year, In this connection attention is invited to my recommendation of July 10, in an indorsement on annual report of inspectorgeneral of the department, which recommendation is herewith renewed, as follows: I fully concur in all that he says in reference to the necessity for additional offi
My experience, extending over two wars, convinces me that the exigencies of service, both in peace and in war, are such, and will probably always remain such, as to require a much larger percentage of officers than is at present allowed. In my judgment there should be 1 major, 5 captains, and 5 tirst lieutenants, extra, to every regiment in the Army, to meet the multifarious details that are always necessary where commands are widely scattered and where the troops are serving in actual warfare, especially in foreign countries.
While the detachment of the officers from their troops has resulted in injury to the latter, it is gratifying to say that all civil duties which have been intrusted to the officers have been fully and faithfully performed. In this connection comparison might well be made between the services rendered by military and civil officials. The accounts of all army officers receiving and disbursing island funds have been regularly inspected by the various officers of the inspector-generals department, and have in every instance been found to be correctly and honestly kept.
Military instruction has received careful attention throughout the past year, and the improved appearance and increased efficiency of the troops show sufficiently well the effects of it. As the result, however, of another year's experience in the tropics, it has been found advisable to crowd all indoor instruction, theoretical and practical, into the summer months, reserving the five months, November to March, inclusive, for active outdoor drill, target practice, practice marches, reconnoissance, and scouting.
The relations of the troops and the inhabitants of the country, with few exceptions, have been all that could be desired. The conduct of the inhabitants has been cordial and friendly. Perfect quietude and mutual forbearance have prevailed throughout the entire year, and no disorders or disturbances whatever have arisen requiring the presence of troops outside of their posts.
The multifarious duties devolving upon the adjutant-general's department have been promptly and faithfully performed. All the details, both of military and civil business, have been attended to by this department, and all orders for both military and civil business have emanated from this department, thus saving the expense of maintaining a separate office force. (For further details as to service performed see report of adjutant-general. Appendix A.)
The usual inspections of military posts have been made by the inspector-general of the department. In addition, much work has been done with reference to the condition of cities, and municipal affairs existing therein, and the inspector has been called upon many times for the investigation of particular questions arising. With reference to the latter questions, much of the work has been done by the inspector of police of this department. (Attention has been invited to reports of inspector-general and of inspector of police. Appendices B and I respectively.)
The work devolving upon the judge-advocate's office of this department has been thoroughly and satisfactorily performed. The amount of civil work thrown upon this office has greatly diminished, as the courts have become better organized and the people have learned to feel more confidence in the administration of the laws of the land. However, the civil business still requiring investigation and decision by this office consumes as much or more time than is required by the work arising in purely military administration. (For further details as to service performed see report of judge-advocate. Appendix C.)
The medical department has continued to discharge the various duties devolving upon it successfully and with credit to the officers concerned. The sanitary inspections of all the larger cities have fallen