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organization is principally so serving, and some regiments have been more than two years at unhealthy stations and should be relieved.
I have repeatedly advocated a principle, which seems to me to be safe and logical, by which to determine the strength of our regular military establishment. It is based on the population of the United States. Surely one skilled, trained soldier to every thousand of population can not be a menace to the established liberties and free institutions of this great Republic, and such a proportion would give the least force that is commensurate with the necessities, character, and magnitude of the nation. Our Army is a school in which patriotism constitutes the fundamental principle. The act of enlistment is a voluntary and sacred one. Every officer and soldier is a citizen who, of his own accord, chooses to bear arms for a period, either in defense of his country or to prolong peace by enabling the Government to be prepared for war. The highest type of a patriotic citizen is the citizen soldier who, when he enters the service, is prepared, if need be, to give his life for his country.
In supplying the necessary increase in a permanent military establishment, and in effecting its thorough reorganization, I would urgently recommend that appointments of officers be made with a due regard for the principle of seniority, and that each case be passed upon by a board of the highest officers of the Army, as was done in the reorganization following the civil war.
I will have the honor to submit a draft of a bill embodying my views and recommendations on army reorganization. Very respectfully,
NELSON A. MILES,
Lieutenant- General. The SECRETARY OF WAR.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY.
Washington, October 20, 1900. SIR: The following returns of the Regular Army and of the United States Volunteers now in the service of the United States are respectfully submitted:
A.-General return, or exhibit, showing the actual strength of the Army according to the latest returns received.
B.--Distribution of the Army of the United States.
C.-Statement showing the monthly strength and losses from all causes in the Army of the United States between July 1, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
D.-Strength of the Army by divisions and departments between July 1, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
E.--Strength of the Regular Army of the United States June 30, 1899, and June 30, 1900, with losses from all causes between those dates.
F.-Strength of the volunteers of the United States June 30, 1900, with losses from all causes since July 1, 1899.
G.-Deaths in the Army of the United States between July 1, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
H.-Table showing dates of sailing and troops sent to the Philippine Islands.
1.-Casualties in actions of troops serving in China between July 1 and October 1, 1900.
K.-Chronological list of actions, with losses, in the Philippine Islands, between February 4, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
L.-List of retirements, resignations, deaths, etc., among officers of the Army since last annual report.
M.- Deaths in the Philippine Islands between February 4, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
N.-Statistical exhibit of strength of volunteer forces called into service during the war with Spain, with losses from all causes.
The military forces now in the service of the United States are composed as follows:
66, 396 32,627
a The Hospital Corps is not included in the effective strength of the Army, nor counted as a part of the enlisted force provided by law.
6 The number of officers in the Regular Army holding volunteer commissions is deducted from aggregate strength to avoid counting twice.
The following statement gives the present distribution of the regular and United States Volunteer forces:
Deaths in the armies of the United States between July 1, 1899, and June 30, 1900.
The losses from all causes in the Regular Army, the State and the United States Volunteers from July 1, 1899, to June 30, 1900 (see Table “F”), were as follows:
THE REGULAR ARMY.
Under the provisions of section 2 of the act approved March 2, 1899, for increasing the efficiency of the regular military' establishment, the increase therein provided is to continue in service not later than July 1, 1901, and thereafter the enlisted force of the line of the Army is to be reduced to the number prescribed by prior laws, exclusive of the additions made to the artillery under this act. Unless, therefore, suitable provision is made by Congress to meet the existing emergencies of the military service, the enlisted strength of the Army will, at that date, be reduced to 29,025 men.
In pursuance of the plan, approved by the Secretary of War, of establishing depot battalions for the purpose of drill instruction and recruitment, the following battalions have been ordered home from the Philippine Islands to stations as follows:
April 1, 1900.-The first battalion of the Fourteenth Infantry (Companies A, B, C, and D—4 officers and 211 men) sailed on the Sherman and arrived at San Francisco on the 26th of that month, Company A taking post at Fort Brady, Mich., and the other three companies at Fort Wayne Mich.
June 19, 1900.-The first battalion of the Eighteenth Infantry (Companies A, B, C, and D—20 officers and 293 men) sailed on the Hancock, arriving at San Francisco July 13. The first three companies were assigned to the Presidio, San Francisco, Cal., and Company D to Fort Mason, Cal.
July 1, 1900.–The third battalion of the Twenty-third Infantry (Companies
. I, K, L, and M–5 officers and 182 men) sailed on the Warren and arrived at San Francisco July 27, Companies I and L taking station at Fort Douglas, Utah, and Companies K and M at Fort D. A. Russell, Wyo.
THE VOLUNTEER ARMY. Of the 200,000 men called into the military service under the act of Congress dated April 22, 1898, for the prosecution of the war then existing between the United States and Spain, all had been mustered out of service at the date of last report with the exception of the First Tennessee Infantry. That regiment, then en route for the United States, was mustered out at San Francisco November 23, 1899.
UNITED STATES VOLUNTEERS.
Of the additional military force of 35,000 men authorized by the act of March 2, 1899, the Eleventh Cavalry and the Twenty-sixth to the Thirty-second Infantry, inclusive, were in service in the Philippines at the date of the last report. The other organizations of that force arrived at Manila on the date set opposite each regiment, as follows:
and Thirty-third Infantry
Dec. 27, 1899
5, 1900 Jan. 25, 1900