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of 24 men killed, including Captain_Mitchell and Lieutenant George A. Cooper, and 20 wounded, including Captain John E. Moran. The rebel loss was reported at only 10 killed and 20 wounded, including a general.
In Northern Luzon General Young had numerous small affairs, and called emphatically for reinforcements. There were many raids in other sections. The hostile
demonstrations were most marked along the railway and Heavy Fighting around Lake Laguna. American losses in September were in the Fall.
heavy, not less than 175 killed and wounded. Buencamino
informed by Aguinaldo that he declined peace proposals. Amnesty date expired September 21. Insurgent activity supposed to be directed by Aguinaldo for effect upon American election. On Leyte Island General Mojica's insurgents were dispersed by Major Allen. October 6, General Hare, with a strong force, ordered to Maranduque to stamp out rebellion, which he speedily accomplished. General Young, in North Luzon, was strongly reinforced early in October to meet renewed efforts of insurgent renegade priest, Aglipay, and Generals Tinio and Villanueva. It is confessed that the Filipinos are becoming more skilful as soldiers, imitating American methods.
Mabina, founder of the Filipino government, captured in December last, was liberated in October without taking any oath. October 26 General MacArthur issued a stringent health order, enjoining cleanliness, boiling of water before use, etc. Secretary Long appointed a board, with Admiral Remey at its head, to locate a naval coaling station. Many trials of Filipinos by military commissions for such crimes as murder, robbery, rape, etc., have taken place, and a score sentenced to death. Only two were executed. October 12 a fight occurred in North Panay, in which 20 Tagalos from Luzon were killed and 40 wounded. Two Americans wounded. October 24, Lieutenant George L. Febiger with 40 men attacked the bushwhackers near Narvican, Northwest Luzon. After a desperate fight with over 1,000 insurgents under Villanueva, a subordinate of Tinio, the Americans were forced back to Narvican. Lieutenant Febiger and four men were killed, eight wounded and four missing. Rebel loss 150. In a fight near Looc, October 27, two Americans were killed and three wounded, including Captain Beigler. Enemy's loss 75.
General Hall with 800 men marched into the Province of Infanta, Southern Luzon, after General Cailles, who defeated Mitchell in September, but failed to find him. Hall garrisoned the town of Binangonan, and visited the island of Polillo, off the coast. Small bands of ladrones were busy in many of the southern islands throughout October, but nothing important occurred in Mindanao, Negros, Panay or other islands.
November mail advices brought news of the fight at Bugazon, Panay, October 30, in which Lieutenant Koontz, Sergeant Kitchen and Corporal Burns, 44th Infantry, were killed, the attacking rebels losing 100 killed, 21 wounded and 50 prisoners. The rebel activity during the fall resulted in the capture of no American post. Near Dagupan, the first week in November, the rebels made an attack, killing two and wounding three Americans. November 4 Señor Buencamino, representing the ex-insurgents in Manila, requested Judge Taft to forward to Washington a signed expression of their loyalty. There was considerable excitement over the approaching election in the United States, and some betting on the result. November 4, Private James Thompson wrote home that a young Filipino who occupied a bed next to his own in a Manila hospital told him confidentially that Aguinaldo had been shot dead by Major March's party, as reported, but that for political reasons his death was being concealed. November 7 it was announced from Washington that diplomatic steps were being taken to suppress the insurgent junta at Hong Kong. Complaint will be made to the British Government of its secret operations. The result of the Presidential election in the United States was quietly received and made no noticeable change in the Filipino situation. In the first ten days of the month several unimportant skirmishes took place throughout the islands, with the loss of 6 Americans killed and 17 wounded. November 15, it was announced that the press censorship had again been removed, but cable companies were to furnish General MacArthur with a copy of all press dispatches. The insurgents became again very active in the middle of November, followed by numerous fights, especially throughout Luzon. Our forces undertook active aggressive movements against the rebels on Samar, the whole of which island was in their possession, except two or threo coast towns. Its coast was to be patrolled by a gunboat. General Hare commanded the expedition. The 14th Infantry returned from China the second week in November, General Wheaton sent reinforcements to General Young in Northwestern Luzon, where Tinio was again becoming restless and aggressive. General MacArthur and Admiral Remey visited Subig Bay, where it is proposed to establish a station to be held by a strong force of marines. November 20 General Macabulos, the former Filipino general, with 100 picked natives, was prepared to go in pursuit of Aguinaldo, supposed to be located in Northern Luzon. The renegade native priest, Aglipay, manifests a disposition to lay down his arms. The American troops are supplied with Australian frozen fresh beef and mutton. November 27 Colonel Allen reported that the islands are covered at every important point with a thorough system of cable telegraphic communication. Manila is now in close telegraphic touch with all quarters. General MacArthur's official report was filed in the Adjutant-General's office during the month, and a summary published. Nothing different from the foregoing running narrative of events was disclosed in the report. The fighting was less severe during November, and American losses were comparatively light.
In March President McKinley appointed a second Commission to the Philippines, composed of William H. Taft, of Ohio; Professor Dean C. Worcester, of Michigan; Civil and Fiscal
Luke P. Wright, of Tennessee; Henry C. Ide, of Vermont,
and Professor Bernard Moses, of California. Judge Taft Affairs.
was designated as president of this Board. They received their official instructions April 7. They were first to familiarize themselves with conditions in the islands, and then proceed to establish civil government in its various fundamental forms as rapidly as possible throughout the loyal sections permanently held by our troops. Septeinber 1 was fixed as the date of transfer of all power of a legislative nature from the Military Governor to this Commission. This power was designated to be establishing rules and regulations for the raising of revenue by taxes, customs, duties and imposts; the expenditure of public funds; the establishment of an educational system and of an adequate civil service; the organization of an efficient judicial system; the creation of municipal and departmental governments, and all minor branches of civilian government, and the appointment of all officials for such governmental machinery. The military forces were to be subject to the call of the civil authorities for the maintenance of law and order. All the substantial rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness enjoyed by citizens of the United States are to be guaranteed to the Filipinos. In dealing with uncivilized tribes on the island, the American policy observed toward the North American Indians is to be adopted.
The Commission held a conference with the President March 31, and sailed from San Francisco on the transport Hancock on April 18, arriving at Manila June 3. It was cordially welcomed by General MacArthur, Rear-Admiral Remey, the Filipino Supreme Court and many unofficial people of consequence.
In April General Otis issued an order permitting civil municipal government and giving loyal Filipinos the right of suffrage therein under certain restrictions. The President, on April 13, reported to Congress that the cost of the first Philippine Commission was $117,185. Abcut April 15 the Philippine Jesuits issued a pamphlet combating American religious liberalism. Its authenticity, however, was subsequently disputed. The Filipinos bitterly oppose the Jesuits and friars. In Manila in April 119 Chinamen and 66 Filipinos died of bubonic plague. A proclamation, issued May 4, purporting to be signed by Aguinaldo, warned the Filipinos against the Taft Commission
as lacking adequate authority, not having been authorized by Congress. Postal receipts in the Philippines for the nine months ended March 1 announced May 4. Thirteen postoffices outside of Manila received $18,652, and expended $15,659. Manila receipts, $56,514; expenditures, $12,513. June 8, General MacArthur was ordered to appoint a board to revise the tariff schedule, with instructions to report to the Philippi le Commission.
Early in June General Otis's plan of municipal government was being inaugurated in various towns of Luzon. June 13 the Postmaster-General issued an order amending
a previous regulation regarding postal rates. It ruled that Municipal Govern- the Philippine Archipelago comes under the head of ment Inaugurated. "island possessions of the United States." June 17 it was
announced that the Commission had established offices in the same building with General MacArthur. Preparatory to the enactment of laws, subjects of study were divided among the members as follows: Judge Taft, crown lands, land titles, the Church and civil service. Commisioner Wright, internal improvements, constabulary and commerce. Commissioner Worcester, corporation franchises and criminal code. Commissioner Ide, banking and currency, and the organization of civil courts. Commissioner Moses, revenues, taxation and schools. August 21 the Commission made an official report, in which it was stated that hostility to Americans was gradually lessening. Nearly all the prominent officials and generals had surrendered or been captured except Aguinaldo; the hostile element in Luzon was really small, and only influential through coercion and violence; there was very little trouble in the Visayan islands, and civil government was eagerly awaited. It was stated that hostilities were now maintained with greatest difficulty by guerilla chiefs for effect upon the forthcoming American election. If the election confirmed the present policy the war will be over in sixty days. The agricultural and commercial conditions of the islands are rapidly improving, and fine outlook for the future presented. This report was signed by all the Commissioners.
On September 1 the Commission assumed authority in the islands. On the 20th it promulgated an "act for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient and honest civil service in the Philippine Islands," which pleased the Filipinos, but was not so satisfactory to the military. One of the Commission's first legislative acts was to appropriate $1,000,000 gold for public highways and bridges. General MacArthur was retained by the Commission as its chief executive. Several bureaus were provided for. October 6 the War Department announced that the revenues of the islands for the first seven months of 1900 were $4,782,080. A revised tariff schedule has been forwarded to the War Department for approval. Various legislative measures have been enacted by the Philippine Commission, all eminently judicious and calculated to imbue the Filipinos with confidence and make for peace,
In a private letter to the States, Judge Taft speaks in the highest terms of the capacity of the Philippines for purposes of commerce and enterprise. He states that the ship tonnage into Manila, exclusive of Government transports, is already double that in the palmiest days under the Spanish control. The American Bible Society has established an agency in Manila, and is busily engaged in distributing the Scriptures in native dialect. Special Agent J. W. Erwin, of the Postoffice Department, reports that the postal service in the Philippines is in a most satisfactory condition financially. November 27 the Commission passed a bill requiring banks to accept deposits whether in Mexican or local currency, and to honor checks in the currency in which the deposits were made. Under a proposed new law the liquor license for saloons in Manila will be $300 gcld. November 28 the Commission mailed to Secretary Root its formal report of the first three months' of its operations. Director-General of Posts Vaille, who organized the Philippine postal system, has been relieved at his own request and
The Boxer movement first gave rise to alarm in October, 1899, when the powerful secret society of that name, organized some time earlier with the avowed patriotic object of driving all foreigners out of the country, began public recruiting and openly
drilling armed men in all the cities of Northern China. Development of the Within a few months its membership reached several millCrisis.
ions, and there was inaugurated a reign of terror for the
foreign missionaries and native Christians, hundreds of the latter being put to death with torture. The Imperial Government at Peking paid little attention to the representations of the diplomatic corps on the subject and the Chinese troops appeared unwilling to check the rapidly increasing outrages. On March 9, 1900, Minister Conger telegraphed to the State Department:
“Missionary troubles still spreading. The situation very critical. The Ministers of England, France, Germany, Italy and the United States to-day sent to the Foreign Office an identical note demanding the publication of a strong Imperial decree without delay. If Chinese Government absolutely refuse, and the situation does not materially improve, I advise that a naval demonstration by war vessels of each government should be made in North Chinese waters. My colleagues have telegraphed their governments similarly."
On May 30, with the reluctant consent of the authorities, an international guard was sent to Peking from the fleet at Taku, consisting of 63 Americans, 75 British, 42 Italians, 75 French, 50 Germans, 30 Austrians, 75 Russians and 26 Japanese. The Boxers, infuriated by this movement, immediately began concentrating in great numbers near Peking and Tien-Tsin and along the railway line.
On June 6 the railway line was cut by Boxer bands, and all communication between Peking and the coast closed. The admirals promptly began landing men to reopen the line and to reinforce the legation guards, and on June 12, with the permis
sion of the Viceroy of Tien-Tsin, an international force of Military Operations. 1,078 men, under Vice-Admiral' Seymour, of the British
navy, and including 100 Americans under Captain McCalla, started from Tien-Tsin for Peking. This force fought its way to a point about 12 miles from Peking, when, on June 16, it found further advance impossible and turned back. At this time the rioters had begun an attack on the foreign settlement at TienTsin with artillery, and difficulties arising in the prompt dispatch of reinforcements to that point, the admirals demanded the surrender of the Taku forts, whose forces, there were good reasons to believe, were encouraging the Boxers. On June 17 the foreign vessels began firing on the forts at 1:45 a. m., and they were taken by the united forces at 8 a. m. In this action Admiral Kempff took no part until he learned that the Monocacy had been struck, when he "immediately ordered concerted action with the foreign nations.” The relief forces thereupon pressed past Tien-Tsin, avoiding the walled city, and on June 26 rescued Admiral Seymour's column, which had retreated to a few miles above Tien-Tsin, where it was intrenched and making a desperate resistance against the assaults of an overwhelming horde of Chinese. Every effort of the combined forces was now concentrated upon the preservation of the foreign settlement of Tien-Tsin, adjoining the Chinese provincial capital of that name, the movement upon Peking being abandoned until foreign troops could be assembled in great numbers. At the same time most of the naval vessels in the East were hurried to Taku to land their men. Among the earliest to arrive was the flagship Brooklyn, with Rear-Admiral Remey, who relieved Rear-Admiral Kempff. The battleship Oregon when entering the Gulf of Pe-Chi-Li, June 28, struck a pinnacle rock near Chefoo and came near being lost. She was floated at the end of three weeks, and through the courtesy of the Japanese Government was temporarily repaired at the Kure dockyard.
On June 27 the 9th U. S. Infantry started from Manila, and landing at Taku July 8 proceeded to join 16,000 foreign troops a Tien-Tsin, who were opposed by a Chinese force exceeding 50,000. On July 13 Tien-Tsin was assaulted, and the following morning the Chinese were driven out. The total foreign casualties in this engagement were nearly 1,000 killed and wounded, including 23 American killed and 99 wounded, among the killed being Colonel Emerson H. Liscum.
General Adna R. Chaffee, who had been ordered to command the American forces in China, left San Francisco July 3, with, eight troops of the 6th Cavalry, arriving at Taku July 28, where he was joined by Reilly's Battery of the 5th Artillery and two battalions of the 14th Infantry from Manila, With this force he immediately proceeded to Tien-Tsin, when with Reilly's Battery and the 9th and 14th Regiments he promptly moved with the allied army to the relief of Peking, assisting in the capture of Pei-Tsang, August 5 (no American casualties); Yang-Tsun, August 6 (American loss, 7 killed, 63 wounded), and H -Wu, August 9 (no casualties).
Early in the morning of August 14 the Americans, Russians and Japanese began an assault on the east wall of Peking. The American flag was the first raised on top of the wall, the Russians being the first to enter the Tartar City. The British, attack
ing at the south, found little resistance, and profiting by The Capture of the concentration of the Chinese against the Japanese and Peking.
Americans, were the first troops to reach the legations, the
Americans arriving two hours later, at 5 o'clock in the evening, after losing 6 killed, including Captain Reilly, and 30 wounded. The German Emperor, August 10, appointed Field Marshal Count von Waldersee to command the forces in China, his high rank entitling him to command the allies in all concerted
operations. All the Powers approved this appointment. Up to August 18 the total number of foreign troops reported landed at Taku was 33,343, of which 14,602 were from Japan, 7,020 Russia, 4,412 Great Britain, 3,339 United States, 2,300 France, 1,320 Germany, 290 Italy and 60 Austria. The American force consisted of 68 officers, 2,060 enlisted men of the Regular Army, and 49 officers, 1,162 enlisted men of the Marine Corps.
On August 28 the allies formally paraded through the palaces of the Forbidden City, and on the same day orders were issued in Washington diverting all L'nited States troops on the sea destined for China to Manila, supplemented a month later by directions to General Chaffee to retain as a legation guard four troops of cavalry, one light battery of artillery and one regiment of infantry, and to send the remainder of the force to Manila. In compliance with these orders the marines left Peking October 3, followed several days later by the 14th Infantry, and by November 1 all American troops except the legation guard had been withdrawn from China.
Count von Waldersee assumed command of the allies September 30, and October 12 a large force started for Pao-Ting-Fu, which was occupied October 17 without opposition.
The object of this expedition was to chastise those responsible for the murder of missionaries, and October 26, by sentence of court-martial, Ting-Yung, acting Viceroy of Chi-Li, and several generals and other officials were shot.
The seat of Imperial Government was established October 12 at Si-Ngan-Fu.
The legations were put under a virtual state of blockade on June 13, when the local authorities ceased any show of preserving order in the city. On that day the Chancellor of the Japanese Legation was murdered by the mob, and five days later, the
legations having been given 24 hours to leave the capital, The Siege.
Baron von Ketteler, the German Minister, was assassinated
by armed Chinese officials, while on his way to the Foreign Office to insist upon Imperial protection. On June 20 the bombardment of the legations by Chinese troops began and lasted until July 16, artillery and rifle fire being incessant during that period. The temporary cessation on that day was due to the arrival in Peking of the noted cipher message from Secretary Hay, which was delivered to Minister Conger under a flag of truce. Desultory firing was resumed several days later, after the legations had been revictualled by Imperial command, but no serious attempt was made to carry the foreign positions.
The earliest notable utterance designed to harmonize the Powers in their efforts to rescue their citizens and subjects in China and to avoid the dangers arising from declarations of war leading to the partition of the Empire came from the United
States in the following circular cabled to the American Diplomatio
diplomatic representatives at the principal courts of Europe Negotiation.
and in Japan:
“Department of State, Washington, July 3, 1900. "In this critical posture of affairs in China, it is deemed appropriate to define the attitude of the United States as far as present circumstances permit this to be done. We adhere to the policy initiated by us in 1857 of peace with the Chinese nation, of furtherance of lawful commerce and of protection of lives and property of our citizens by all means guaranteed under extra-territorial treaty rights and by the law of nations. If wrong be done our citizens we propose to hold the responsible authors to the uttermost accountability.
“We regard the situation at Peking as one of virtual anarchy, whereby power and responsibility are practically devolved upon the local provincial authorities. So long as they are not in overt collusion with rebellion and use their power to protect foreign life and property we regard them as representing the Chinese people, with whom we seek to remain in peace and friendship. The purpose of the President is, as it has been heretofore, to act concurrently with the other Powers, first, in opening up communication with Peking, and rescuing the American officials, missionaries and other Americans who are in danger; second, in affording all possible protection everywhere in China to American life and property; third, in guarding and protecting all legitimate American interests, and fourth, in aiding to prevent a spread of the disorders to the other provinces of the Empire and a recurrence of such disasters.
"It is, of course, too early to forecast the means of attaining this last result, but the policy of the Government of the United States is to seek a solution which may bring about permanent safety and peace to China,' preserve Chinese territorial and administrative entity, protect all rights guaranteed to friendly Powers by treaty and international law, and safeguard for the world the principle of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire.
“You will communicate the purport of this instruction to the Minister for Foreign Affairs.
HAY." In this declaration of purpose and policy all the nations promptly expressed their concurrence, with more or less formality but with substantial definition. Its effect in China, through its energetic use by Minister Wu Ting Fang, was pronounced in securing the allegiance of all the southern Viceroys and in causing the Emperor, on July 19, to address an appeal to President McKinley for his mediation. In his reply, July 23, the President indicated his willingness to act after ihe Emperor had given public assurance of the safety of the Ministers, put them in free communication with their governments, removed all danger to their lives and liberty and caused the Imperial authorities to co-operate with the relief expedition.
In the mean time Minister Wu had presented to the State Department, on July 11, an Imperial decree dated June 29, denying the Government's responsibility for the state of affairs prevailing in China and laying all blame for the siege of the legations upon the seizure of the Taku forts. This led to one of the most remarkable episodes of the
crisis—the Hay-Conger cipher dispatches, which, though incredulously received in Europe at the time, were regarded later as having been instrumental in saving the legations by causing the truce that permitted their revictualling and by hastening the departure of the relief column from Tien-Tsin.
It occurred to Secretary Hay when Minister Wu presented the decree, if such a document could be transmitted from Peking to Washington, that by reversing its route a message might be sent to Minister Conger which would settle beyond doubt the con
dition of affairs in the Chinese capital, the prevailing First News from the belief throughout the world at that time being that the Besieged.
Ministers and all with them had been already massacred.
A dispatch was prepared in the State Department cipher making the single request, “Send tidings by bearer," and handed to Minister Wu, who remained ignorant of its meaning. Nine days later the Minister delivered to Secretary Hay a similar cipher dispatch signed “Conger," which when translated read:
"In British Legation under continued shot and shell from Chinese troops. Quick relief only can prevent general massacre.”
The effect of this message was almost magical. The English memorial services at St. Paul's, London, were postponed, the allies at Tien-Tsin, who had decided to wait a month for reinforcements before advancing, were ordered to start, whatever the risks, within a week, and more vigorous diplomatic representations from Washington to the Chinese were echoed by the other Powers. Earl Li Hung Chang, who had been ordered by the Emperor from Canton to Tien-Tsin and appointed plenipotentiary to deal with the Powers, under this pressure suggested that the Ministers might be delivered at Tien-Tsin under safe escort if the allies would not advance to Peking, but this was met on July 30 by the following declaration from the United States:
"The Government will not enter into any arrangement regarding disposition or treatment of legations without first having free communication with Minister Conger. Responsibility for their protection rests upon Chinese Government. Power to deliver at Tien-Tsin presupposes power to protect and to open communication. This is insisted on."
In reply to Earl Li’s next inquiry the following_day, whether “if free communication were established it could be arranged that the Powers should not advance pending negotiations,” Secretary Hay replied:
"I do not think it expedient to submit the proposition of Earl Li to the other Powers.
Free communication with our representatives in Peking is demanded as a matter of absolute right, and not as a favor. Since the Chinese Government admits that it possesses the power to give communication, it puts itself in an unfriendly attitude by denying it. No negotiations seem advisable until the Chinese Government shall have put the diplomatic representatives of the Powers in full and free communication with their respective governments and removed all danger to their lives and liberty. We would urge Earl Li earnestly to advise the Imperial authorities of China to place themselves in friendly communication and co-operation with the relief expedition. They are assuming heavy responsibility in acting otherwise."
Secretary Hay at the same time urged Minister Wu to get another message from Minister Conger, resulting in the following cipher dispatch, dated August 7:
“Still besieged. Situation more precarious. Chinese Government insisting upon our leaving Peking, which would be certain death. Rifle firing upon us daily by Imperial
Have abundant courage, but little ammunition or provisions. Two progressive Yamen Ministers beheaded. All connected with Legation of the United States well at the present moment."
Minister Wu also presented an edict of August 2, allowing free communication in plain language and ordering the Ministers escorted to Tien-Tsin. Three days later a supplemental edict was issued permitting cipher messages, and with this Minister Wu delivered on August 8 a cipher from Minister Conger reciting among other things that the Tsung-li-Yamen declared that the Powers had repeatedly urged the delivery of the Ministers at Tien-Tsin and protesting against the plan as utterly infeasible. This led to the following dispatch to the Chinese Government from the State Department:
"We are availing ourselves of the opportunity offered us by the Imperial edict of the 5th of August allowing to the foreign ministers free communication with their respective governments in cipher, and have sent a communication to Minister Conger, to which we await an answer.
“We are already advised by him, in a brief dispatch, received August 7, that Imperial troops are firing laily upon the Ministers in Peking. We demand the immediate cessation of hostile attacks by Imperial trcops upon the legations, and urge the exercise of every power and energy of the Imperial Government for the protection of the legations and all foreigners therein.
"We are also advised by the same dispatch from Minister Conger that, in his opinion, for the Foreign Ministers to leave Peking as proposed in the edict of August 2 would be certain death. In view of the fact that the Imperial troops are now firing upon the legations, and in view of the doubt expressed by the Imperial Government in its edict of August 2 as to its power to restore order and secure absolute safety in Peking, it is evident that this apprehension is well founded, for if your Government cannot protect our Minister in Peking it will presumptively be unable to protect him upon a journey from Peking to the coast.
"We therefore urge upon the Imperial Government that it shall adopt the course suggested in the third clause of the letter of the President to His Majesty the Emperor of China, of July 23, 1900, and enter into communication with the relief expedition so that co-operation may be secured between them for the liberation of the legations, the protection of foreigners and the restoration of order. Such action on the part of the