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the Forum, and other standard period- consists in a denial of the ability of a icals, are well known ; while his grace- glacier to excavate gorges.

That the ? ful and instructive lectures, based on gorges in the high Sierra were cut by personal observations in India, Egypt, glaciers is true nevertheless. They are South Africa, Central America, the Phil- plainly the result of channel, not valley, ippines, and other remote regions, live erosion, and channel erosion upon such in the memory of thousands.

a scale as this is done only by ice.

Thie W J M. line of demarcation between channel and

valley erosion in the cañons of the Sierra

is clearly marked, and can be deterTHE ORIGIN OF YOSEMITE

mined, one might almost say, to a footVALLEY.*

i. e., the point at which the present visi

ble marks of ice cease and those of water R. TURNER finds that the higher

begin. I do not mean that the ice may

not have excavated farther down the part of the Sierra Nevada has been

cañons, but that below certain points, glaciated, and in support of this belief in

easily distinguished, the subsequent acstances numerous cases of glacial markings and morainal deposits.

tion of water has masked that of ice. If If there is any one feature of the

other proof of the competency of glaciers

to do the work of erosion upon a large higher parts of the Sierra which stands out in bold relief, so that “he who runs

scale were wanting, the presence everymay read,” it is the fact that it has been

where of hanging valleys is in itself evi

dence conclusive. There is no other covered by glacial ice in sheets and

known agency which could produce streams, and that at a very recent time. There is no need to search for glacial them, and today we see them in process scratches or moraines. Tlie whole as

of production everywhere in glacial repect of the terrane is that of great sheets

gions, notably upon the Alaskan coast,

where there are thousands of them under of bare granite, not yet covered with soil, with rounded surfaces, cut by deep

construction before our eyes. U-shaped cañons, containing thousands

Holding such opinions concerning the of lake basins, and presenting cirques pected that Mr. Turner attributes the

erosive power of glaciers, it is to be exand hanging valleys ; in short, everything in the field of vision tells the story

creation of the Yosemite Valley to other of a wholesale ice invasion. Nor was it

agencies than ice ; indeed, he attributes a brief one, but one which lasted for

it to aqueous erosion, aided by systems many centuries, during which cubic

of fractures in the granite. He finds miles of rock were carried away, cañons

110 significance in the fact that Tenaya thousands of feet deep were excavated,

Cañon is vastly greater in breadth and and the level of the country plaied down

depth, as he states, than could be created

by the present Tenaya Creek. He passes to an enormous extent. As to the potency of a glacier for the

over witliout notice the significant fact work of erosion, Mr. Turner is among

that every stream, excepting Tenaya the few remaining upon the negative Creek, enters Yosemite Valley through side. His argument, however, simply

a lianging valley, and that the character of the Merced Valley changes abruptly

and suddenly to a V-shaped gorge two * The Pleistocene Geologr of the South Central or three miles below Fort Monroe, at Sierra Nevada, with Especial Reference to the

the foot of Yosemite Valley. Origin of Yosemite Vailer. By Henry Ward Turner. Proceedings of the California Acad

It is perfectly obvious to those familiar emy of Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 9.

with glacial phenomena that Yosemite is

quite an ordinary and necessary product Douglas; bay indenting south coast of of glacial erosion, under the conditions Kupreanof Island, Sumner Strait, prevailing in that locality. The main southeastern Alaska (not Dougglacier came down Tenaya Cañon, cut- lass) ting it to a steep but fairly uniform Grand Pacific; glacier reaching Reid grade. Yosemite Valley is but a con- Inlet from the north, Glacier Bay, tinuation of that gorge.

The end of the southeastern Alaska (not Johns glacier, at the time that it was cutting Hopkins). Yosemite, extended not far beyond Fort Iskut; mountain, and river tributary to Monroe. It remained there for a long the Stikine in southeastern Alaska time, and therefore plowed out the bot- (not Iskoot nor Skoot). tom of the valley to a considerable depth. Izhut; bay and cape on southeastern Branchglaciers joined the Tenaya Glacier shore of Afognak Island, Alaska when it filled Yosemite, coming down the (not Ijoot, Ishoot, Pentecost, Sharvalleys of Yosemite, Little Yosemite, ipof, nor Whitsuntide). Illilouette, and Bridal Veil and other Kates Needles ; mountain near Stikine creeks, and forming hanging valleys at River, southeastern Alaska (not the junction points. The formation of Kates Needle). the vertical cliffs of the valley may have Kisselen ; small bay at head of Beaver been due to undermining, and may have Bay, Unalaska, eastern Aleutians, been aided by the cleavage of the rocks. Alaska (110t Kissialiak nor WorOn the recession of the glacier doubtless sham). the bottom of the valley was occupied Kupreanof; strait between Afognak and by a lake, which has since been partially Kadiak Islands, Alaska (not Karluk, filled by detritus, and drained by the North, Northern, nor Sievernoi). erosion of Merced River cutting through Mooneyham ; branch of French Broad the rock-wall at the foot of the valley. River, Cocke County, Tennessee HENRY GANNETT.

(not Moneyhan nor Mooneyhan). Mullin ; creek, post-office, and railroad

station, Mills County, Texas (not GEOGRAPHIC NAMES.

Mullen).

Nez Perce ; county in Idaho (not Nez THE following decisions were made Perces).

by the United States Board on Geo- Nishinabotua ; river in southwestern graphic Names, January 9, 1901 :

Iowa (not Nishnabotany, Nishnabo

tena, Nishnabotny, Nishnabotony). Bloyd ; mountain, Washington County, Reem; creek, Buncombe County, North Arkansas (not Bloyed nor Bloyd's).

Carolina (not Reams nor Rims). Bobs; creek, Lincoln County, Missouri Rendu; glacier reaching the head of (not Bobbs nor Bob's).

Rendu Inlet, Glacier Bay, southCarroll; glacier reaching the sea at head eastern Alaska (not Charpentier).

of Queen Inlet, Glacier Bay, south- Scajaquada; creek, in Buffalo, Erie eastern Alaska (not Woods).

County, New York (not Seajaquada, Chiniak; cape, the easternmost point of nor Scajaquady).

Kadiak, Alaska (not Greville. Her- Yellow; point on eastern shoreof Tamgas mogenes, St. Hermogenes, Spruce, Harbor, Annette Island, southeastTolstoi, Tuniak, nor Yelovoi).

ern Alaska (not Signal).

TI

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL

GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

Popular Meetings.

G. W. Littlehales; “American Arc

Measures,” by C. A. Schott.
November 9, 1900.-Prof. Willis L.
Moore in the chair. Dr. M. H. Saville,

January 11, 1901.-President Graham

Bell in the chair. of the American Museum of Natural

Papers were read as

follows: “The Stenometer as a Distance History, New York city, delivered an illustrated address, "The Ancient City Establishment of Compass Deviation '

Measurer," by W. J. Peters ; “The of Mitla, Mexico."

Range-markson Delaware Breakwater," November 23, 1900.-Mr. Marcus

by D. B. Wainwright ; "A Topographic Baker in the chair. Gen. A. W. Greely,

Cycle on Glaciers,' by G. K. GilChief Signal Officer, U. S. A., delivered

bert. an illustrated address, "A trip through Alaska.''

Announcement of Meetings. December 7, 1900.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Dr. W. A. P. Martin, February 1, 1901. - Mexico, Her President of the Imperial University at Characteristics and Recent Progress, Pekin, delivered an address, “The Siege by Dr. Don Juan N. Navarro, Mexican of Pekin."

Consul General at New York. December 18, 1900.-Mr. G. K. Gilbert February 15, 1901.-" Explorations in the chair. Capt. Ewart S. Grogan, in Abyssinia," by Otis T. Crosby. the first white man to cross Africa from March 1, 1901.—“The Recent Famine south to north, delivered an illustrated in India," by Gilson Willets. address, “From Cape to Cairo."

These lectures will be delivered in December 21, 1900. —President Graham the Congregational Church, 9th and G Bell in the chair. Mr. Gifford Pinchot, streets, at 8 p. m. Forester, U. S. Department of Agricult

TECHNICAL MEETINGS for the reading ure, delivered an illustrated address, "The Proposed Appalachian Park."

of papers and discussion will be held in

the hall of the Cosmos Club on the evenJanuary 4, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Mr. Joseph Stanley

ings of February 8 and 22.

The committee having in charge the Brown delivered an illustrated address, “ The Franciscan Missions of Southern

formation of the programs for the techCalifornia."

nical meetings of the Society desire to

invite members to report to the SecreJanuary 18, 1901.—President Graham Bell in the clair. Mr. Arthur P. Davis

tary of the Society the titles of com

munications bearing upon geographical delivered an illustrated address,“ The

research that are available for presentaIsthuian Canal Routes."

tion to the Society during the months

of February, March, April, and May, Technical Meetings.

1901. December 14, 1900.- President Graham The subject of the LENTEN COURSE of Bellin the chair. Papers were readas fol- lectures for this year is “ The Countries lows: "Winter Precipitation in Relation of Asia." The first lecture of the series to Irrigation,” by Dr. H.C. Frankenfield; will be at 4.20 p. m., Tuesday afternoon, “The Survey for an All-American Cable February 26, in the Columbia Theater, to the Philippines and the Orient," by 12th and F streets, Washington, D. C.

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

ABYSSINIA–THE COUNTRY

AND PEOPLE

BY OSCAR T. CROSBY

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N leaving Paris in December, This gentleman had made the journey

1899, I went first to Constanti- to Addis Abeba a few years ago at the

nople, as I wished to journey head of a mission whose object was to across the interior of Turkey down the cultivate the friendship of and obtain Mesopotamian Valley; but on my arrival treaty with the African monarch. From at Constantinople our representatives at Sir Rennell I obtained the first detailed the American legation informed me that iuformation as to how I might get into not less than thirty days would be re- Abyssinia, and through the kindness of quired for obtaining permission to go other British officers stationed at the into the interior. Passports to the great arsenal I was enabled to buy a few sea-coast towns of Turkey are had as rifles and some ammunition. The sale readily as those for any European city, of fire-arms generally is strictly conbut the Ottoman Governinent is unwill- trolled in Cairo, as it is in most oriental ing that travelers should penetrate into countries. the rather loosely governed portions of In Cairo, too, I was able to have packed Asia Minor unless provided with other in wooden cases a stock of excellent special letters insuring as far as possible provisions, tie selection of which was the safety of the bearer. The necessary largely suggested to me by the provision delay being greater than I cared to make, merchants who had supplied several of I left Constantinople for Cairo.

the Nile expedi'ions of troops. An exThe Austrian captain of the Egyptian ample, however, of the importance of

, vessel piloted us for five days across the detailed knowledge was given me when, Mediterranean without making any as- on getting into the interior and being tronomical observations whatever. required to use the small Abyssinian

Arrived at Cairo, a fortunate chance mule for transport, I found it necessary gave me acquaintance with Sir Rennell to cut down these boxes, which in Cairo Rodd, Secretary of the British Agency, were supposed to be quite the right size, which means, substantially, Secretary and which had been satisfactory enough of the Egyptian Government in Cairo. on camels, and probably would have been satisfactory enough on a full-sized quite European, the splendid talent of mule.

our British cousins for making themHere, also, through the kindness of selves and their guests almost comforthe American mission, I acquired a very table and entirely contented in all sorts doubtful asset in the person of a shop- of conditions. worn, old Abyssinian, who had left his A score of forgotten, but at the last native land as a boy and had been too moment much desired, articles were obmuch cared for by a succession of mis- tained, and all the purchases were found sionary friends, who had brought him in good condition when I arrived in Zeila up into a softened old manhood. His save only that the sea biscuit, which I had qualifications were honesty, a knowl- ordered to serve as bread, had been foredge of the two principal Abyssinian gotten by the packers. The result was tongues, together with sufficient En- the important discovery that one can get glish to keep me from going mad; and a along tolerably well without bread. helplessness which assured his fidelity A little steamer coughs its way across to me when we were in strange lands. once a week from Aden to Berbera,

With about twenty boxes of provisions thence to Zeila, thence back again. On and the ancient Michael Gabriel, I took this Michael Gabriel was sent a week ship at Port Said on a tramp vessel bound ahead with instructions to deliver a letter for Aden. Until the comparatively re- to Captain Harold, the British officer in cent establishment of Jibuti, in French command at Zeila, and, with his perSomali Land, Aden was the only seaport mission, to get together some camels. near this portion of the African coast When I reached Zeila, Michael seemed which one could reach by steam vessels to have gotten close to only one camel. plying to or through the southern end That one had managed, even with its of the Red Sea.

soft pad, to kick Michael's shin into colIt would have been possible to take lapse and makehim mourn the difference, an Italian ship for Massawa, and to be- which he declared to be well marked, begin there the journey toward the inte- tween the Somali camels and his humped rior, but I was told, and could well brother of Asia Minor and Egypt. understand, that the sad disasters suf- A few Somali servants had been enfered by the Italians in recent years gaged in Aden, one of whom tried to had reduced Massawa to a point of al- desert when the little ship stopped at Bermost negligible importance, and, more- bera, but we were finally landed safely, over, there I would have had more carried in chairs on the shoulders of difficulty in obtaining the necessary strong, young natives through the shalconsent from Menelek for the interior lows to the shore. Zeila is a seaport, journey than at Jibuti or Zeila.

not a harbor. Aden is famous the world over as one Captain Harold put me up at his of the hottest and in all natural ways modest Presidency, and his kindness one of the most detestable places fre- followed me at every moment in all tlie quiented by civilized man. My first day detailed organization of the caravan. or two at this point, housed in one of A trade with camel men was made at so the two strange little inns which the much a load for the distance from Zeila traveler may find, quite bore out the to Gildessa. Additional and trustworthy popular conception of the place; but men were engaged for my personal servsoon acquaintance with the hospitable ices, and happily two small mules, the British officers made the place seem to only two in Zeila, were sold to me as me quite a pleasure resort. I saw then, saddle animals for myself and companmore clearly than in Cairo, which is now ion.

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