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of outposts planted at strategic points Tehilinited States Weather Bureau
THE ATLANTIC WEATHER may come when scientists will so thorSERVICE.
oughly understand thiese laws that they
can with certainty forecast the seasons. ROF. ALFRED J. HENRY, un
der the direction of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, has established dur- THE U.S. WEATHER BUREAU AT ing the last month a meteorological sta- THE PARIS EXPOSITION. tion at Hamilton, Bermuda. This station was needed to complete the chain
was extending from the Lesser Antilles west- month of April and opened to visitors ward and northwestward to the British for inspection in completed condition possessions. Bermuda is in the track May 15. The building remained open of atmospheric disturbances which pass and the exhibit accessible to visitors northeast ward from the Florida coast, every day, except Sundays, from 9a. m.
. and which occasionally curve northwest- to 6 p. m.,from May 15 to September 30, ward, striking the southern coast of New and from 9 a. m. to 5.30 p. m. during England. From this vantage point it the month of October. It was necessary will also be possible to forecast with to close a half hour earlier during the greater accuracy the tracks of storms month of October on account of darkwhich occasionally develop great inten- ness, there being no way of lighting the sity in the Atlantic off the coast of the building artificially. Carolinas.
The exhibit was visited by many thouArrangements have also been made
sands of people, among whom were by the Weather Bureau for a daily cable- meteorologists and those interested in gram from the Azores, giving the mete- related sciences from all parts of the civorological conditions in that part of the ilized world. The cloud photographs, Atlantic, and also for a daily cablegram the method of making weather forecasts, from London, summarizing the condi- and the kite and aerial apparatus attions west of Spain, France, and Ire- tracted special attention. land. As the forecasters of the Weather Many interested in aeronautics and Bureau can now determine what condi- air explorations examined the kite extions storms proceeding from the United hibit in detail, taking photographs and States will meet, they are able to pre- measurements of the kite, instruments, dict with considerable certainty the di- and apparatus. Notably among these rection such storms are likely to pursue. were a number of officers of the German,
The U. S. Weather Bureau has al- French, Italian, and Japanese armies ready begun issuing to the captains of and navies. the trans-Atlantic liners predictions of During the meeting of the Internathe weather for three days out of New tional Meteorological Congress, which York,
brought to Paris representative meteThe advance made in our knowledge orologists from nearly all parts of the of the laws governing meteorological world. a special invitation was extended
, conditions, and especially in the prac- to its delegates and members to visit and tical application of these laws to the in- inspect the Weather Bureau exhibit. terests of the mariner and tlie farmer, This invitation was accepted, and therehas been one of the most remarkable fore the exhibit brought the methods, recent developments of science. Prof. instruments, etc., of the United States Willis L. Moore, Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau to the attention of those Weather Bureau, believes that the time most interested in meteorological work.
It was the special effort of those con- loss by lightning during the year would nected with the exhibit to explain and probably be $6,000,000. One-half of set forth in the strongest and clearest the buildings struck were barns, sheds, light possible the aims and methods of warehouses, etc., and about 7 per cent the United States Weather Bureau and churches and schools ; cattle, horses, its practicability and great economic mules, and pigs were killed by lightvalue to the people of the United States ning to the value of about $129,955. and of North America. Special stress was given to the great importance and the value of its weather forecasts and
POLAR WORK. warnings.
As a result of the visit of the Jury of LANS for the Baldwin-Ziegler Awards and their critical examination, the United States Weather Bureau was ing rapidly, for, unlike the majority of awarded a Grand Prix. Gold medals Arctic leaders, Mr. Baldwin is not hamwere awarded to two officials of the pered for want of funds. Mr. Ziegler, Weather Bureau, Prof. C. F. Marvin the multimillionaire behind the enterfor instruments, apparatus, and appli- prise, has expressed a willingness to pay ances, and to Prof. A. J. Henry for all expenses under one million dollars. cloud photographs.
Half a million was the cost of the Italian expedition of last year, and it was
to the complete equipment that was thus THE LOSS OF PROPERTY FROM possible that the Duke of Abruzzi parLIGHTNING.
tially owed his success.
He has had experiby the United States Weather Bureau ence with Peary in Greenland and with to ascertain the frequency of damaging Wellman in Franz Josef land. and is thus or destructive lightning strokes through acquainted with the practical difficulties out the United States. The results of of both routes. Two ships will take the the first year's work were published in party north, one returning before the Weather Bureau Bulletin No. 26, Light- autumu ice blocks retreat, and the secning and Electricity of the Air, and also ond remaining with the men through separately as Weather Bureau Bulletin the winter. Mr. Baldwin plans to take No. 199, Property Loss by Lightning, a number of tough Siberian ponies with 1898. The collection of statistics bear- him, The chances are many against ing upon ihe loss of and damage to prop- his being able to put them to any pracerty was continued during 1899.
tical use, but the one chance is worth The total number of reports received providing for. of buildings struck and damaged or de- The summer of 1901 will thus witness stroyed by lightning during the calen- the simultaneous inauguration of the dar year 1899 was 5,527, about three most systematic campaign to reach the times as many as were received during North and South Poles that has ever the previous year. In addition to this been attempted. In the Arctics, Peary, mimber, 729 buildings caught fire as a Baldwin, Sverdrup, and a Russian party result of exposure to other buildings with a vessel of the type of the icethat had been set on fire by lightning breaking Ermak will push northward,
The great majority of buildings struck while in the Antarctics two splendidly by lightning were not provided with equipped expeditions, the German and lightning rods. A conservative esti- British, will strive to reach the opposite mate by Prof. A. J. Henry of the total extremne.
IN Josef Wand rearte:
THE BRAZIL-FRENCH GUIANA arctic commerce. Although north of BOUNDARY DECISION. the arctic circle, it is free of ice the year
round, as it is reached by an offshoot of Y the award of the Swiss Federal the Gulf Stream.
Council, the arbitrators in the dis- A dam nearly 500 feet in length has pute as to the frontier line between been built to protect the harbor, which Brazil and French Guiana, Brazil has is deep enough for the largest ships. obtained the main points for which The town has now some 250 inhabitshe contended. Brazil obtains 147,000 ants, mostly officers and laborers, boasts square miles of the disputed territory 50 houses, a hotel, and several shops, and France not more than 3,000 square and is lit by incandescent and arc lamps. miles. The dispute dates back to 1688, The government does not expect the when France claimed to the Araguary town to grow much larger, but it serves River, which is parallel to the Amazon as an outlet for the trade of inland The boundary as determined by the northern Russia, and is a clearing poin award is the River Oyapoc and, from for the considerable traffic of hides the head source of this river to the fron- that come down the Obi and Yenisei tier of Dutch Guiana, the line of the Rivers. Tumuck-Humack range.
The decision of the Federal Council of Switzerland is a follows:
A CORRECTION. “1. That the Japoc or Vincente Piuçon of article 8 of the Treaty of Utrecht
LITTLEHALES has called is the Oyapoc that debouches to the attention to an erroneous statewest of Cape Orange, as has been estab
ment in the note appearing in the Janlished by the documents which Brazil
uary number of this Magazine, entitled has submitted to the tribunal, and that “The Principles Underlying the Survey the thalweg of that river, from its mouth of the Bottom of the Oceau for an Allto its source, definitively constitutes the
American Trans-Pacific Cable to the first of the frontier lines between Brazil Philippines and the Orient.” The corand French Guiana.
rect equation to the curve which, by “2. That the other frontier line, revolution around a vertical axis, would from the source of the Oyapoc to the generate the theoretical formsof an isopoint of junction with the Dutch terri
lated submarine peak in which the crushtory, will be that which article 2 of the
ing strength at any cross-section is equal treaty of arbitration indicated as an in- to the combined weight of the portion of termediate solution, that is to say, the
the formation above that section and of line of division of the waters in the
the superincumbent body of water is Tumuc-Humac Mountains, forming the northern limit of the Amazon basin."
log x, to
in which e represents the base of Na
perian logarithms, k the coefficient of LEXANDROWSK, the little arctic crushing strength of the materials comment on the Murman coast two years age density of these materials, and the ago, is becoming a modest center of density of sea water.
RANK FREDERICK HILDER, met again the contagion of military spirit soldier, geographer, and ethnolo- stimulated by our civil war, and did
gist, was born in Hastings, Eng. special work of importance in the Engiland, in 1836 ; he died in Washington neer Corps, but held so firmly to his January 21, 1901. Educated at Rugby election of a peaceful life as to decline in the approved manner of the times, he an American commission. In the later afterward graduated from the British sixties he becamethe international repremilitary school at Sandhurst, and entered sentative of a small-arms manufactory, the army as a cornet in early manlood, and spent fifteen years chiefly in travel at a time when the eyes of all England through the several Spanish-American were turned on India. Sent imme- countries; and during this period he diately to aid in quelling the Sepoy re- acquired an extended and intimate acbellion, he soon saw service of such quaintance with languages and peoples, severity--and met it with such intre- as well as with national leaders and polipidity--that he was awarded the Indian cies. Impressed by the opportunities
— Mutiny medal, with special-service bars for international business presented by for Delhi and Lucknow.
the actual and prospective republics of It was during this period of his career Spanish America, he established a house that Hiller traversed the Indo-Gangetic in Chicago, only to be ruined by the fire plain, trod the Himalayan foothills, and of 1871 ; later he combined business envisited the provinces and cities of the terprises in St. Louis and Mississippi northwestern empire from Bombay to City with notable researches in the arKashmir, and from the Punjab to Nepal, cheology of the Mississippi Valley. Unlaying the foundation for a broad, yet happily pursued by conflagrations, lie precise, geographic and etlinologic edu- turned to research and publication, makcation ; and some of the lectures of even ing important contributions to the prothe latest years of his life drew inspira- jectors of the Pan-American Railway and tion and significant detail from the re- the Bureau of American Republics. searches enlivening these early cam
Colonel Hilder acted as Secretary of paigns. He saw service also in Farther the National Geographic Society during India, Borneo, and the Philippines, the year ending June, 1899, afterward and after rising through a lieutenancy becoming Ethnologic Translator in the to the rank of captain was transferred Bureau of American Ethnology. He to Africa. Here he won the Egyptian continued in this position to the time of medal, and his skill as military expert his death, though he was detailed as a and organizer attracted such attention special agent of the Pan-American Exthat after his return to his regiment in position for work in the Philippines Iudia he was recalled and promoted to during the earlier half of 19.0. a colonelcy at the express request of the Asindicated by his career, Colonel HilKliedive.
der possessed remarkably strong charIn Africa, as in India, Colonel Hilder acter ; yet he was by instinct a natı1seized every opportunity for scientific ralist and student, and devoted the best research; but his tenure in the Egyptian energies of his life to the increase and army was cut short by the terrible ex- diffusion of knowledge. His later pubperience of a sand-storm, which so in- lications, through the Bureau of Edujured his eyesight that he decided to cation and the Bureau of American abandon a military career. Coming to Republics, as well
Republics, as well as through the America on his recovery, Colonel Hilder NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE,