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Rock Temple at Amoy. From Commander Harrie Webster's collection of Chinese pictures,

of way," and works just as diligently The contrasts and comparisons made in the field and in the workshop, and, in the course of this paper are especially what is more to the point, for equal work interesting when the histories of these gets equal pay! This freedom enjoyed two peoples are compared, for it would by women in Japan is not of recent seem certain that the remote origins of growth. It is not the outcome of the the Japanese and the Chinese were far emergence of the nation from aristocratic apart, the doctrine of modifications profeudalism into the light and practices of duced by environment being inadequate modern politics and government, but has to account for the brain-fiber differences always existed, and is as much a matter now existing between these two most inof course as is the contrary in China. teresting historical entities.


THE RUSSIAN ANNEXATION munitions of war in the arsenals not alOF MANCHURIA.

ready occupied by the Russians.

(4) All forts and defenses in ShengY the agreement concluded between king not occupied by the Russians, and

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latter will exercise a protectorate over the Russians, must be dismantled in the Manchuria in the same sense that the presence of Russian officials. British maintain a protectorate of India.

(5) Niuchwang and other places now The 400,000 square miles of this prov- occupied by the Russians shall be reince may thus be added to the dominions stored to the Chinese civil administraof the Russian Empire.

tion when the Russian Government is The conditions on which Russia con- satisfied that the pacification of the provsents to allow the Chinese officials to ince is complete. resume the civil government, which was (6) The Chinese shall maintain law taken from them last summer, are as

and order by local police under the follows (this agreement thus far applies Tatar general. only to Shengking, the southern and (7) A Russian political Resident, with most important province of Manchuria, general powers of control, shall be stabut it will be extended to include the tioned at Mukden, to whom the Tatar other two provinces of Manchuria): general must give all information re

(1) The Tatar General Tseng un- specting any important measure. dertakes to protect the province and (8) Should the local police be insuffipacify it, and to assist in the construc- cient in any emergency, the Tatar gention of the railroad.

eral will communicate with the Russian (2) He must treat kindly the Rus- Resident at Mukden and invite Russia sians in military occupation, protecting to despatch reinforcements. the railway and pacifying the province, (9) The Russian text shall be the and provide them with lodging and standard." provisions.

The “Boxer” movement was scarcely (3) He must disarm and disband the noticeable in Manchuria, and what little Chinese soldiery, delivering in their en- there was of it was easily suppressed by tirety to the Russian military officials all the more sensible of the provincial Chi

It is stated on good authoritythat. The lasing'' of the B: itish Pacific


nese officials; but the Chinese soldiery shall appropriate the important workrivaled the Boxers of Pekin. Hun- shops at Shanhaikwan with all their dreds of miles of the railway were torn contents. up in a single week by Chinese regular troops under the direction of local military commanders. This destruction has BRITISH PACIFIC CABLE. not yet been

HE recently awarded Russia has today in Manchuria, andalong the frontier of this province, 3,900 offi- cable from Vancouver to Australia via cers and 173,000 men, with 340 guns. Fanning Island and Fiji, specifies that In addition, between 35,000 and 40,000 the line shall be laid by July 31, 1902, men will be despatched by sea to rein- so that in eighteen monthis at the most force this large army, and many thou- the world will be belted by a complete sands more will proceed to the Far East cable system. Nine and one-half milover the Trans-Siberian road.

lion dollars will be paid for the making and laying of the cable, which will meas

ure, including slack,about 8,000 nautical THE POWERS IN CONTROL IN miles. CHINA.

Great Britain and Canada have agreed

to defray five-ninths of this sum, New URING the second week of Jan- Zealand one-eighth, and New South

uary, Russia turned over to Ger- Wales, Queensland, and Victoria have many the Shanhaikwan Railway, which pledged to contribute the balance beruns from Tientsin to Niuchwang. This tween them. It is proposed to charge 19 road was built by British capital, but cents a word for messages to the United as it commands the route from Mau- States and 25 cents additional for meschuria to Pekin, Russia seized it early sages to Europe. last summer, and lias operated it during the past months. On the arrival of Comnander von Waldersee the pro- THE DEVELOPMENT OF test of the British bondholders was suh

SIBERIA. mitted to him, but he decided against

its dersee will now hand the road over to is destined to be contradicted by the its rightful owners, or at least what growth of Russia during the present is left of the road, for Russia, it is under- century. One hundred years from now stood, has succeeded in obtaining the it is almost safe to predict the center of following concessions : (1) That Russia the Russian Empire in influence and shall retain half the rolling stock of the enterprise, if not in population, will be entire railway for the section from Shan- east of the Ural Mountains. haikwan to Niuchwang outside the The great tide of emigration, enterGreat Wall, which is also in Russian prise, and pluck that is following the occupation ; (2) that Russia shall hold iron rails of the trans-Siberian Railroad a lien on the railway within the wall eastward are strikingly shown in a recent for the expenses incurred in repairs, official publication of the Russian Govalthough made with railway property, ernment. and in transport operations during the Siberia is roughly divided into two Russian occupation ; (3) that Russia zones, separated by a broad belt of virgin

them; and the British acquiesced in the THAT well-woruplarase, is The world

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forest. The northern zone, cold and The total cost of the Siberian road barren, stretches in an almost unbroken to date, constructed as it has been by tundra to the polar regions. The south- Russians with Russian money, with all ern zone is rich in those climatic and branches and auxiliary undertakings, natural conditions that favor industry including vessels and ports, is $385,and perseverance, and it is this zone

000,000. In regard to this enormous that the railway traverses.

cost the official report states: During the two decades, 1860-1880, “However large the total may be, it 110,000 people emigrated to Siberia; is insignificant in comparison with the during the next 15 years this number advantages held out to Russia by the had increased to 680,000, while during exploitation of the shortest railway route the last five years more than 1,200,000 between the Atlantic and the Pacific, in persons, the majority sturdy Russian conjunction with the stimulation of the peasants, have settled there. The present rich productive powers of a vast country population of Siberia is about 9,000,000. like Siberia and the development of Rus

So great has been the rush of traffic sia's commercial intercourse with the since the line was first opened in 1899 countries of eastern Asia.” that the equipment has failed to equal the demands upon it. Of the exports from Siberia corn, sent

HON. O. P. AUSTIN. to the European markets, forms nearly one half. Next come meat, butter R. AUSTIN'S paper on a floating (which is shipped in special refrigerator exposition, which is printed in the cars to London), tallow, hides, wool, opening pages of the present number, eggs, and game. The chief imports are was read by him before the National iron and ironware, sugar, cottons and Board of Trade on January 24, at the woolens, machinery, and petroleum. special request of that body. The propo

Even today, when the last stages of sition, although a novel one, was rethe Siberian road are not completed, the ceived with such favorable consideration journey from London to Vladivostok by that a special committee, consisting of railway takes only a little more than the leading officers of the National half as many days, 24 to 42, as the jour- Board of Trade, the Philadelphia Muney by the Suez Canal. The easiest seums, the National Manufacturers' route between the two oceans is Havre, Association, and the United States ExParis, Cologne, Berlin, Warsaw, Mos- port Association, was at once appointed cow, Samara, Omsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk, to consider its feasibility, and, if found Vladivostok — 7,500 miles. Of this, practicable, to formulate plans for a 6,400 miles, or six-sevenths of the whole proper organization to put it into operatrip, fall to Russian railways—4,100 to tion. the Siberian main line and 2,300 to the Mr. Austin has been Chief of the European-Russian system, 700 to Ger- Bureau of Statistics since the spring of man, 100 to Belgian, and 300 to French 1898, and during that time has prepared lines.

and published officially a large number The traveler can reach Shanghai from of works on topics of current interest, London or Paris, when the main trunk including “Commercial China in 1899, ' line is completed, in 16 days, and will “ Commercial Japan,” “Commercial have to pay $160 for his first-class sleep- South America," "Commercial Africa,' ing-car express ticket, instead of being “Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Hawai42 days on the route and paying $450 ian, Philippine, and Samoan Islands,” for the journey.

“Russia and the Trans-Siberian Rail

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way," " The Colonial Systems of the The volumes are indispensable to those World," " Submarine and Land Tele- who wish to obtain an accurate undergraphs of the World,” etc., etc. standing of the present condition of these

His earlier literary work prior to his people. entrance upon official life consists of a The facts presented in the reports were series of books on national affairs es- gathered in all cases by the people thempecially intended for the instruction of selves, as the most intelligent of the youth, including “Uncle Sam's Se- better classes were induced to compete

for positions as census-takers by the relatively handsome salaries offered by the U. S. Government. The facts thus gathered were classified under the direction of Messrs. Henry Gannett and Walter F. Wilcox, statistical experts.

These handsomely gotten up volumes, containing many good illustrations, charts, and diagrams which emphasize the figures, can be obtained gratis on application to the War Department. Extracts from these reports, taken from advance sheets, lave appeared from time to time in this Magazine, but some further notice may be of interest.

Porto Rico has only one-third of its population engaged in gainful occupations, while in Cuba the proportion is about two-fifths, and in the United States it is about midway between these two. It appears that the relative number of

breadwinners is greater in cities than crets,' “Uncle Sam's Soldiers,” while in rural districts. In Porto Rico a relaothers of the series are still in prepara- tively larger proportion of women work tion.

for a livelihood than in Cuba, although Mr. Austin is a member of the Na

the proportion is decidedly less than in tional Geographic Society, and as such

the United States. his recent contributions to geographic It is interesting to compare the kinds of and commercial information have been occupation most popular in the islands. very favorably received and highly com- In Porto Rico sixty-nine in every 100 mended.

working persons labor on farms, plantations, in mines, or are engaged in fishing.

In Cuba 48 in every 100, while in the CUBA AND PORTO RICO.

United States only 39 are so engaged.

In the manufacturing and mechanical HE U. S. War Department has re- industries, however, these proportions

cently published two volumes con- are reversed ; in Porto Rico 8 in every taining the results of the census of Cuba

100, in Cuba 15, and in the United and Porto Rico, taken in the fall of 1899 States 22 earn their living by transunder the direction of military officers. forming raw material into new forms.

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