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of way," and works just as diligently in the field and in the workshop, and, what is more to the point, for equal work gets equal pay! This freedom enjoyed by women in Japan is not of recent growth. It is not the outcome of the emergence of the nation from aristocratic feudalism into the light and practices of modern politics and government, but has always existed, and is as much a matter of course as is the contrary in China.

The contrasts and comparisons made in the course of this paper are especially interesting when the histories of these two peoples are compared, for it would seem certain that the remote origins of the Japanese and the Chinese were far apart, the doctrine of modifications produced by environment being inadequate. to account for the brain-fiber differences now existing between these two most interesting historical entities.




munitions of war in the arsenals not al-
ready occupied by the Russians.
(4) All forts and defenses in Sheng-

Y the agreement concluded between king not occupied by the Russians, and

latter will exercise a protectorate over Manchuria in the same sense that the British maintain a protectorate of India. The 400,000 square miles of this province may thus be added to the dominions of the Russian Empire.

The conditions on which Russia consents to allow the Chinese officials to resume the civil government, which was taken from them last summer, are as follows (this agreement thus far applies only to Shengking, the southern and most important province of Manchuria, but it will be extended to include the other two provinces of Manchuria):

"(1) The Tatar General Tseng undertakes to protect the province and pacify it, and to assist in the construction of the railroad.

(2) He must treat kindly the Russians in military occupation, protecting the railway and pacifying the province, and provide them with lodging and provisions.

(3) He must disarm and disband the Chinese soldiery, delivering in their entirety to the Russian military officials all

all powder magazines not required by the Russians, must be dismantled in the presence of Russian officials.

(5) Niuchwang and other places now occupied by the Russians shall be restored to the Chinese civil administration when the Russian Government is satisfied that the pacification of the province is complete.

(6) The Chinese shall maintain law and order by local police under the Tatar general.

(7) A Russian political Resident, with general powers of control, shall be stationed at Mukden, to whom the Tatar general must give all information respecting any important measure.

(8) Should the local police be insufficient in any emergency, the Tatar general will communicate with the Russian Resident at Mukden and invite Russia to despatch reinforcements.

(9) The Russian text shall be the standard."

The "Boxer" movement was scarcely noticeable in Manchuria, and what little there was of it was easily suppressed by the more sensible of the provincial Chi

nese officials; but the Chinese soldiery rivaled the Boxers of Pekin. Hundreds of miles of the railway were torn up in a single week by Chinese regular troops under the direction of local military commanders. This destruction has not yet been repaired.

shall appropriate the important workshops at Shanhaikwan with all their contents.


recently awarded contract for

It is stated on good authority that THE receng of the British Pacific

Russia has today in Manchuria, and along the frontier of this province, 3,900 officers and 173,000 men, with 340 guns. In addition, between 35,000 and 40,000 men will be despatched by sea to reinforce this large army, and many thousands more will proceed to the Far East over the Trans-Siberian road.

cable from Vancouver to Australia via Fanning Island and Fiji, specifies that the line shall be laid by July 31, 1902, so that in eighteen months at the most the world will be belted by a complete cable system. Nine and one-half million dollars will be paid for the making and laying of the cable, which will measure, including slack, about 8,000 nautical



URING the second week of January, Russia turned over to Germany the Shanhaikwan Railway, which runs from Tientsin to Niuchwang. This road was built by British capital, but as it commands the route from Manchuria to Pekin, Russia seized it early last summer, and has operated it during the past months. On the arrival of Commander von Waldersee the protest of the British bondholders was submitted to him, but he decided against them and the British acquiesced in the decision. It is stated that von Waldersee will now hand the road over to its rightful owners, or at least what is left of the road, for Russia, it is understood, has succeeded in obtaining the following concessions: (1) That Russia shall retain half the rolling stock of the entire railway for the section from Shanhaikwan to Niuchwang outside the Great Wall, which is also in Russian occupation; (2) that Russia shall hold a lien on the railway within the wall for the expenses incurred in repairs, although made with railway property, and in transport operations during the Russian occupation; (3) that Russia

Great Britain and Canada have agreed to defray five-ninths of this sum, New Zealand one-eighth, and New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria have pledged to contribute the balance between them. It is proposed to charge 49 cents a word for messages to the United States and 25 cents additional for messages to Europe.


To empire westward wends its way,

HAT well-worn phrase, "The world

is destined to be contradicted by the growth of Russia during the present century. One hundred years from now it is almost safe to predict the center of the Russian Empire in influence and enterprise, if not in population, will be east of the Ural Mountains.

The great tide of emigration, enterprise, and pluck that is following the iron rails of the trans-Siberian Railroad eastward are strikingly shown in a recent official publication of the Russian Government.

Siberia is roughly divided into two zones, separated by a broad belt of virgin

forest. The northern zone, cold and barren, stretches in an almost unbroken tundra to the polar regions. The south ern zone is rich in those climatic and natural conditions that favor industry and perseverance, and it is this zone that the railway traverses.

During the two decades, 1860-1880, 110,000 people emigrated to Siberia; during the next 15 years this number had increased to 680,000, while during the last five years more than 1,200,000 persons, the majority sturdy Russian peasants, have settled there. The present population of Siberia is about 9,000,000.

So great has been the rush of traffic since the line was first opened in 1899 that the equipment has failed to equal the demands upon it.

Of the exports from Siberia corn, sent to the European markets, forms nearly one half. Next come meat, butter

The total cost of the Siberian road to date, constructed as it has been by Russians with Russian money, with all branches and auxiliary undertakings, including vessels and ports, is $385,000,000. In regard to this enormous cost the official report states:

"However large the total may be, it is insignificant in comparison with the advantages held out to Russia by the exploitation of the shortest railway route between the Atlantic and the Pacific, in conjunction with the stimulation of the rich productive powers of a vast country like Siberia and the development of Russia's commercial intercourse with the countries of eastern Asia.”


(which is shipped in special refrigerater MR. AUSTIN'S paper on a floating

cars to London), tallow, hides, wool, eggs, and game. The chief imports are iron and ironware, sugar, cottons and woolens, machinery, and petroleum.

Even today, when the last stages of the Siberian road are not completed, the journey from London to Vladivostok by railway takes only a little more than half as many days, 24 to 42, as the journey by the Suez Canal. The easiest route between the two oceans is Havre, Paris, Cologne, Berlin, Warsaw, Moscow, Samara, Omsk, Tomsk, Irkutsk, Vladivostok -7,500 miles. Of this, 6,400 miles, or six-sevenths of the whole trip. fall to Russian railways—4,100 to the Siberian main line and 2,300 to the European-Russian system, 700 to German, 100 to Belgian, and 300 to French lines.

The traveler can reach Shanghai from London or Paris, when the main trunk line is completed, in 16 days, and will have to pay $160 for his first-class sleeping-car express ticket, instead of being 42 days on the route and paying $450 for the journey.

_exposition, which is printed in the opening pages of the present number, was read by him before the National Board of Trade on January 24, at the special request of that body. The proposition, although a novel one, was received with such favorable consideration that a special committee, consisting of the leading officers of the National Board of Trade, the Philadelphia Museums, the National Manufacturers' Association, and the United States Export Association, was at once appointed to consider its feasibility, and, if found practicable, to formulate plans for a proper organization to put it into opera


Mr. Austin has been Chief of the Bureau of Statistics since the spring of 1898, and during that time has prepared and published officially a large number of works on topics of current interest, including "Commercial China in 1899," "Commercial Japan," "Commercial South America," "Commercial Africa,” "Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Hawaiian, Philippine, and Samoan Islands,” "Russia and the Trans-Siberian Rail

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The volumes are indispensable to those who wish to obtain an accurate understanding of the present condition of these people.

The facts presented in the reports were gathered in all cases by the people themselves, as the most intelligent of the better classes were induced to compete for positions as census-takers by the relatively handsome salaries offered by the U. S. Government. The facts thus gathered were classified under the direction of Messrs. Henry Gannett and Walter F. Wilcox, statistical experts.

These handsomely gotten up volumes, containing many good illustrations, charts, and diagrams which emphasize the figures, can be obtained gratis on application to the War Department. Extracts from these reports, taken from advance sheets, have appeared from time to time in this Magazine, but some further notice may be of interest.

Porto Rico has only one-third of its population engaged in gainful occupations, while in Cuba the proportion is about two-fifths, and in the United States it is about midway between these two. It appears that the relative number of breadwinners is greater in cities than in rural districts. In Porto Rico a relatively larger proportion of women work for a livelihood than in Cuba, although the proportion is decidedly less than in the United States.

-It is interesting to compare the kinds of occupation most popular in the islands. In Porto Rico sixty-nine in every 100 working persons labor on farms, plantations, in mines, or are engaged in fishing. In Cuba 48 in every 100, while in the United States only 39 are so engaged. In the manufacturing and mechanical industries, however, these proportions are reversed; in Porto Rico 8 in every 100, in Cuba 15, and in the United States 22 earn their living by transforming raw material into new forms.

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