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ened the evil against which he was striv- that time on the earth. Soon after his ing. It is a significant commentary on death the throne was usurped for twentyhis act that in the Chinese schools of one years by a woman, who bears a retoday liistory later than the accession of markable resemblance in some respects the present dynasty, 1643, is not taught. to the Dowager Empress who now exerThe literati, it may be added, disregard- eises supreme power in this ancient city. ing the true reason of his decree, at- In our own times Singan is noted for tribute it simply to his vanity--the hope the brave and successful defense of its “that he might by this means be re- inhabitants against the Mohammedan garded by posterity as the first emperor rebels in 1865, although there were some of the Chinese race."

50,000 of their coreligionists within the Nearly nine hundred years later Sin- walls. These were compelled to abjure gan is again made the capital by Tait- their faith on pain of death, and to put sung, who so cordially welcomed the up in their mosques inscriptions to the Nestorian priest. He was “famed alike emperor and to Confucius. for his wisdom and nobleness, his con- The situation of the city, over six quests and good government, his tem- hundred miles from the coast, and its perance, cultivated tastes, and patron- impregnability to any force that it is age of literary men. He established likely could be brought against it will schools, and instituted the system of probably make it seem for the interest examinations, and ordered a complete of the present rulers of China that it and accurate edition of all the classics should be once more the permanent to be published under the supervision capital of the Empire. From its hisof the most learned men in the Empire." tory in the past we may hope that this It is probably not too much to say that will be the presage of an era brighter during his reign this now almost un- for the Chinese than that which is apparknown city was the center of the most ently closing. advanced civilization that existed at




FTER the long, dark, dreary days in the morning like a giant refreshed. of winter, summer approaches with

He, marches steadily on, and just as -marvelous rapidity. Before the we think he will descend below the snow has all disappeared the days are skyline, he gradually turns eastward and twenty-four hours long, and there is heavenward and soon begins to flood the no need for candles or lamps during the lesser hills with light and warmth. We months of June and July and part of May. then turn homeward, for if caught too About the middle of June photographs

far from home when the sui has recan be taken quite distinctly at midnight. gained height and power, we shall feel Many, fond of climbing, like to mount in no mood for walking, as the summer the highest domes and watch the sun at days in the Klondike are fiercely hot and midnight. If the night is clear, they wearying. are well repaid for their climb. There What a contrast there is between the is a strange, weird look about the sun at dark, suuless, icy days of winter and the such a time-a sort of tired look, as if bright, glaring, almost unbearably hot he would like to disappear below the days of summer ! horizon for a little rest, and then mount


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FTER an intensely dry, cold day swan when he is pluming himself on the
I have watched for a display of the bank of a stream.

-Northern Lights and have been I have never noticed the rainbow-like rewarded by seeing one of the most beau- colors depicted in some paintings. The tiful displays nature can afford.

light was more like steam rising at night, At its first appearance the Aurora is brilliantly illuminated by a beam of elechardly noticeable, but in a few minutes tric light. the bright, luminous cloudlet enlarges Then at times it would gradually fade and rapidly rushes from east to west and till it resembled phosphorescent waves from west to east, across the northernsky. barring the progress of a ship.

Sometimes the phenomenon will dip At such times visitors coming into down almost to the earth and envelop our cabin from the dry, crisp air would in its bright folds tree tops but a short pull off their skiu mitts amid a cackdistance away. Then it puts one in ling of electric sparks ; our blankets mind of a rainbow reaching the earth and fur coats, if rubbed, would give out and allowing one to look through its a succession of sparks, and our hair iridescent bars to the hazy landscape would try to stand away from the head bevond.

like quills on a porcupine, and if brushed It shines steadily for a while, then would snap and sparkle very distinctly, suddenly, as though a gentle breeze were all the time clinging to the brush or to toying with its beauty, the lambent flame anything placed above the head. I have begins to quiver, then becomes strongly walked to the stove and with my knuckle agitated, and at last rushes along from drawn a spark from the metal top half side to side, like the opening and shut- an inch long. ting of a silvery fan or the wings of a




N many respects the people of China brow, and to some extent by the tendand Japan are not comparable, be- ency of the Chinaman to keep the eyes

cause their ethical, racial, and eth- partly closed, due to the absence of a nological differences are so marked as to projecting visor or peak in their head make comparison misleading.

coverings. As a matter of fact, the eye But the wider and more continued the sockets in the Chinese skull are shaped field of observation, the smaller become and arranged practically as are those in the differences remarked. The observ- the Caucasian. Examples in support of ant traveler will assert that the China- the position here assumed might be man's eyes are as horizontal in their multiplied, but this, the most striking, major axis as are ours. The assertion seems sufficient to substantiate the conis quite correct ! The slanting effect is tention. caused by the configuration of the eye- The Japanese hold the position of being the most progressive people of ples of bygone architectural ability, for which history gives any account, and the remains of bridges or monuments, tie most singular fact in connection with roads or temples, and the idea impresses this progress

is that its genesis was spoil- itself upon the mind of the observer that taneous, 110 outside influence or pressure Japan is a new country, that its past is being brought to bear to effect the tre- but of yesterday. in comparison with mendous changes in the governmental China, Korea, or India; but this impressystem and methods.

sion is speedily forgotten when an exTlie change was a true evolution, and amination of the literature, laws, lanwas carried out with practical unanimity guage, and art discloses the fact that by governors and governed alike. Japau counts lier history by thousands

A point seldom or never noted by of years, and that her literature contains travelers or writers on etlinological sub- examples written before the day of the jects is the odor possessed by the various Roman Empire. We are shown pieces tribes of men, and for want of a better of bronze-work two thousand years old. plirase I will call it the “race smell.” We look upon an emperor who is the

The race smells of several members of one hundred and twenty-first of an unthe human family are distinct enough to broken dynasty which was fuunded 660 influence not only their neighbors, but B. C. ! the domesticated animals of other races. We are impressed with the national Witness the race smell of the North virility which can, after so many cenAmerican Indian, sufficiently marked to turies of existence, voluntarily modify be disagreeable to white nostrils, and to its system of government into sympathy be a source of alarm to our horses and with the ideas of today, and follow up dogs.

that tremendous change by adopting the From observation I am led to conclude best the modern world has to offer in tliat the accidents of clothing, habits, every branch of human thought, and and environments are operative upon the adapting itself as a people to tlie use of race smell only as modifiers, increasing all those ideas which form the difference or decreasing that smell according to between the universe of yesterday and circumstances. Witness the strong race the world of today. Whether their atsmell of the Negro, persisting in spite of tempts are successful is not pertinent to the environments of ages of civilization. the subject, for, looking at the intent of

The application of the foregoing to the the Japanese nation as exploited by her question under discussion lies in the fact leading men, we see that, modified, it is that the race smell of the Japanese is true, by the environments of their tradiso slight as to be scarcely recognizable, tions and history, Japan is well in the while the Chinaman has the race smell so forefront of the family of modern nawell developed as to be distinctly notice- tions. able in any considerable assemblage. Its In China, on the other hand, but little marked feature is that it produces a dis- of interest presents itself which is not tinct tingling in the end of the nose of a monument of a long-departed glory. the European, and once experienced will Splendid bridges, huge gateways fashnever afterward be mistaken. The Chin- ioned in stone, canals, bronzes, remain aman says we smell like sheep, and our unequaled elsewhere for beauty and fitrace smell is as disagreeable to him as ness of design, a literature stretching his is to us, another and novel applica- back beyond the limits of any written tion of the old adage of "de gustibus non history outside of this huge empire. est disputandum.

China is of the past ; her dreams are all In Japan one looks in vain for exam- reminiscent ; her efforts are expended in

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