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just been held at Paris, at which many telligently managed, should be assured. Americans made exhibits, some parts of The chief expense which the ordinary which would be suited to a floating ex- exposition must undergo is the erection position such as has been suggested. A of buildings. The construction account great exposition, especially intended to of the Would's Fair in 1893 was 70 per apply to the people of Central and South cent of the entire cost. With this exAmerica, is to be held at Buffalo this pense obviated by the loan of vessels, if year, and its exhibits would in many they could be so obtained, the cost of cases prove a basis for an undertaking the undertaking would lie chiefly in the of this kind, while another exposition, coal consumed in passing from port to especially relating to the West Indian port, and in the force of men necessary trade, is to be held at Charleston. Thus, for the management of the vessels, and in the disposition to extend our com- this might also be small in case Conmerce, in a prosperity which warrants gress should accompany the loan of the new business ventures, and even in vessels with a suitable detail from the the partial preparation of exhibits, the military or naval force for their managecircumstances appear to be especially ment. favorable.

Whether the expense should be borne But there is still another condition solely by those participating in the exwhich seems even more opportune and hibition in proportion to the space they advantageous. The Government is the might occupy, or be met in part by a

, possessor of a considerable number of

small charge for admission could be desafe and seaworthy merchant vessels termined by those guaranteeing the expurchased as transports during the war pense of the enterprise. In the ordinary with Spain, for many of which it will exposition the chief receipts are from not have active use after the close of admissions, and these are drawn enhostilities in the Philippines. If some tirely from the population of the city of these vessels could be utilized for this where the exposition occurs and from work the problem, as to cost, would be those visiting that city for that purpose, greatly simplified.

while in the case of a floating exposition Congress has always dealt liberally visiting great cities in various parts of with expositions intended to improve the world the local population which our commerce, either at home or abroad, could be appealed to would aggregate and it seems not unreasonable to suppose many millions. that if applied to by a proper business organization it inight loan the necessary

THE ROUTE FOR A FLOATING vessels for an enterprise of this kind.

EXPOSITION. The appropriations of money made by Congress in behalf of expositions at The route which a floating exposition home and abroad in the past 25 years might determine for itself would be amount to over $10,000,000, and in view bounded only by the limits of the great of this it would appear probable that an seas upon which it would float. Startappeal from a properly organized associa- ing from the eastern coast of the United tion of business men might meet with States, it would perhaps make its first favorable consideration.

stop at our new possession, Porto Rico, If there could be added to this fleet of thence to Cuba and other of the West five or six merchant vessels a naval ves- Indies, thence to the principal cities on sel or two to convoy the fleet around the the eastern coast of Central and South world and add to its attractiveness and America, thence along the western coast dignity, the success of the enterprise, in- of America, then to the Hawaiian Islands,

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Japan, Korea, Asiatic Russia, the coast and thence back to the place of origin, cities of China, the Philippines, Siam, the occupying two or perhaps three years, Dutch East Indies, Australia, the Ma- and meantime carrying the American lay Peninsula, India, Persia, Arabia, flag and American enterprise to every the eastern and then the western coast part of the world. Why not an Aroundof Africa, then a tour of the Mediter- the-world American Exposition to inranean and the cities of western Europe, augurate the twentieth century ?

THE CAUSES THAT LED UP TO THE SIEGE

OF PEKIN

BY DR. W. A. P. MARTIN

I

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HAVE been asked to give some we find to have been a common one account of the siege in Pekini, to- among the Tatars of the north. In

gether with the causes that led up the eleventh and twelfth centuries a to it, and its probable outcome. No large part of northern China was subproper view of the thrilling events which ject to a body of Tatars, who bore the have there taken place can be given tribal name of Golden Horde." The without first touching upon the geo- present rulers of China, called Manchus, graphical situation. Man is moulded claim them for their remote ancestors, by his environment, and it would not and continue to wear the same title of be difficult to show how the character Golden Horde''-in the Manchu lanof the Chinese-physical, moral, and guage "Aischin Gioro." intellectual—has been formed by the geography of their country.

SEVEN CENTURIES OF FOREIGN Of England a well-known poet, after

RULE. satirizing the villainous climate of his The relations of the Tatars to the country, exclaims:

Chinese from time immemorial have " 'Tis thus, with rigor for his good designed,

been very similar to those of the ShepShe rears her favorite man of all mankind.”

herd Kings to the rich inhabitants of tlie

Nile Valley. The Chinese depended A Chinese philosopher would unques- upon agriculture, while the wandering tionably adopt without objection every nomads of the northern plains subsisted word of the English poet, and he would on their flocks and herds without settled lay special emphasis on the phrase "her homes. They were always ready to favorite man of all mankind." He make incursions into the bordering provreads in the ancient books of his own inces of China, and oftentimes succeeded country a tradition that man was made in effecting the conquest of a portion or not of dust, but of clay, the clay being the whole of the Chinese Empire. of different colors. The Chinese were It is startling to discover that one or made first, and of yellow clay; hence other of these Northern tribes, Mongol they gave themselves the flattering des- or Manchu, has exercised the mastery ignation of "Men of Gold." That title “

over China for seven hundred out of the

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last fifteen hundred years ; nor are the drive away his enemy. When the stag troubles caused by them limited to seven was put to flight, he asked the man to centuries, for the Great Wall, so huge as dismount; but he was an ass to imagine to form a geographical feature on the that the man would comply with his surface of the globe, attests a perennial wishes. conflict between Tatar and Chinese, for China finds herself in the same preit was erected two hundred and forty dicament today. Instead of the Manchuyears before the Christian era for the ex- Tatars, ranged curiously enough under press purpose of keeping the Tatars out. eight banners, she finds herself comThat such a conflict should exist from pletely under the power of the eight generation to generation is no matter of mightiest nations of the globe. They are surprise. Schiller tells us that it began in the saddle, with their bit in the ass's not far from the Garden of Eden, and mouth, and though that noble beast, like has been lianded down from Cain and that of the ancient prophet, speaks with Abel to the present time. His version of human voice, and utters an energetic pro

. the Bible story is that Abel's sheep tres- test, it remains to be seen whether some passed on the cornfields of his brother of these eight nations will not persist in Cain.

keeping their place in the saddle. A Chinese historian says of the Great The fact that China is and has been Wall: “It required so much labor for its under foreign domination for two cenconstruction that it was the ruin of one turies and a half is essential to the comgeneration, but it was the salvation of prehension of that astounding movement all that followed.” To me this appears which has so engrossed the attention of to be an overestimate of its benefits; for the world. while it has undoubtedly served the pur- What motives, we are asked, could pose of a barrier against small bodies of prove themselves so potent in their effect marauders, it has never sufficed to re- on all classes in that empire as to bring strain great armies like those of Jenghis about combined action of high and low Khan. The Manchus, who for two hun- for the expulsion of foreigners? I andred and fifty-six years have held the swer that there are tlıree motives which, throne in Pekin, were not under the taken in connection with the circumnecessity of forcing their way across this stances of the age, appear to me to be international barrier, but had its gates sufficient to account for the phenomethrown wide open for them by a Chinese 110n. They are: first, political jealousy, general, Wu San Kwei. He invited second, religious antipathy, and last, their assistance to suppress a body of but not least, industrial competition. rebels who had taken possession of the These have operated in different proporcapital, and to revenge the crimes com- tions on different classes, while in some mitted by them, an errand very similar instances all three have combined to to that of the eight powers now in occu- produce their effect on the mind of one pation of China. The rebels were easily class. The existence of political jeal. put to flight, but when the general of- ousy is inseparable from a foreigu domifered to pay off his Tatar allies and in- uation. vited them to retire to the north of the The Manchu dynasty, though it has Great Wall, they respectfully declined produced many able rulers, has never to do so.

been free from the influence of that kind An old fable tells us that an ass, in of jealousy. The Manchus have always danger of being driven from his pasture feared, since the dawn of commercial grounds by a horned stag, invited a intercourse with the great nations of primitive man to mount on his back and the west, that some of those nations would endeavor to supplant them in the It is impossible that he should have occupation of China. They have ac- studied English without becoming incordingly been suspicious of everything, fected with progressive ideas. Still, the whether commerce, missionary enter- blame, or the honor, of having perverted prise, or railways and mines, which the mind of the “illustrious successor tended to increase the prestige of for- (as his name signifies) belongs to Kang eigners. Some of these undertakings Yu Wei more than to any one else. This they have looked upon as a preëmption patriotic scholar perceived the necessity claim on their territory; others as a set- of reforming the educational system of tled scheme for winning away the hearts China in order to secure the permanent of their people. You will naturally independence of his country. He gained infer that they have never shown them- the ear of the Emperor, and of that young selves, with one exception which I shall man it is no little praise to say that he presently mention, very solicitous for possessed the intellectual capacity to the intellectual enlightenment of their comprehend the ideas of the bold reChinese subjects.

former and the strength of will to resolve The old philosopher, Laotse, lays on carrying them into effect. down as a maxim for easy government, He issued decree after decree, with in satire 110 doubt, that it is only neces- startling rapidity, setting aside the effete sary to fill the people's bellies and to system of essays and sonnets in civil empty their skulls. On this the pres- service examinations, in favor of the ent rulers of China-I mean the Empress sciences and practical arts of the modern Dowager and her clique--are acting in world. the suppression of schools, the interdic- In order to prepare students for these tion of newspapers, and the attempted new tests, a system of common schools extirpation of Christian missions. was to be established, Taoist, Buddhist,

and Confucian temples being placed at THE REFORMS ATTEMPTED BY

their disposal. Middle schools were to EMPEROR KWANG SU.

be established in all the districts, and

colleges in the several provinces, with a The exception is a remarkable one. new university in the capital for the It is the young Emperor, Kwang Su, graduates of provincial institutions and who is in 110 degree responsible for hos- for the sous of the nobility. tilities with foreign powers, but is rather Vor did His Majesty stop with educato be regarded as the first victim on a tional reform. He diligently sought to long and sanguinary list. Nephew of prune away the dead branches of the tree the Empress Dowager, he was adopted in order to increase the quantity and imby her at the age of three.

prove the quality of its fruit. Sinecures With a view to preparing him for his in the Mandarinate were abolished, and great destiny, he was provided with new bureaus inaugurated, such as those numerous instructors, two of whom were for commerce, mining, and agriculture. my own students. Their duty was to More than all, he resolved to confer induct His Majesty into a knowledge of on his people the priceless boon of free the English language, and, in order to speech, ordaining that even junior offibe sure that the lessons which they set cials should have the privilege of adfor him were correct, they always sub- dressing the throne without let or hinmitted them to me for approval. I shall drance. not affirm, therefore, that I am entirely This was the rock on which his noble innocent of having exerted some influ- scheme of reform was shattered. A ence to bias the mind of the young young man, a doctor in the Han Lin, Emperor.

who was well known to me, through a

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