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of Guanica Bay and Mayaguez, and a months ago, the waters had so receded small scale survey of that portion of the that the post was fourteen miles distant main mountain range visible from the from the lake. The slave-trade in the south coast. The difficulties of the work vicinity of Lake Kivu is dead. Domestic may be imagined when it is stated that for slavery, however, Captain Hecq states,

, several hours each day, for nearly three still continues, but will soon disappear. months and a half, it was necessary for the topographer and his aids to work in water almost waist deep.

A REPUBLIC IN MAN

CHURIA.

A

THE CENSUS OF INDIA.

FLOURISHING little republic

in Manchuria, it is asserted, has THE third general census of India

been discovered by the Russians. will be taken on the night of March It lies along the upper reaches of the list. Ten years ago the population Sungari River, below Kirin, which is on of India was about 287,000,000, but this

the line of railway from Onon to Port census will probably show not more than Arthur. The Government, according to 300,000,000, as the ravages of famine and report, is properly organized with a Presicholera during the past decade have been dent, Courts of Justice, Trade Guilds, tax great.

In other words, the increase of collectors, and other officers of a State. It population in India during 1891-1901 is supports a small army, which last summer estimated at about the same as the increase joined the Chinese forces to oppose the in the United States during the same Russian advance, and fought with much period, though the latter had less than valor. Probably the Republic was foundone-fourth as large a population as the ed seventy years ago. It now numbers former. The immensity of the task in- about 100,000 and, oddly enough, has alvolved in counting the people of India, ways been favored by the Imperial Govone-fifth the population of the world, may ernment. be grasped by comparison with the immense work of taking a census of the

ORGANIZATION OF United States. Nearly a million men and boys will be employed as enumerators,

FRENCH CONGO. clerks, etc. The well-known suspicion and reluctance of the Indian people to Y a recent decree of the French answer the questions of the census taker Government

administraare gradually wearing away, and the tive province has been formed in Indian Government confidently hopes for North Central Africa, entitled “ Territoire good results from the census of 1901.

Militaire des pays et protectorats du
Tchad.” It includes the basins of the

Kemo, a tributary of the Ubangi, and of
LAKE TANGANYIKA. the Shari, and also Wadai, Bagirmi, and

Kanem, which by the Anglo-French ONVINCING evidence of the agreement of 1899 were included in the

shirinking up of Lake Tanganyika French sphere of influence. The object of Itwas presented in a paper recently this organization is to enable France to read in Brussels by Captain Hecq. The cease sending military expeditions to this post of Karema was built twenty years region. All the soldiers henceforth of this ago on the shores of the lake, but when province will be natives, officered, of Captain Hecq last visited the place, a few course, by Frenchmen.

B

a

new

now

T

T

THE FORESTS OF THE The old regulations have been revised by PHILIPPINES.

Captain Ahern.

Lumbermen are

licensed to cut only certain species.
HE Philippine Bureau of Forestry
has submitted its first report on SOUTH POLAR

POLAR EXPLORAthe forest wealth of the Philip

TION. pine Islands.

The Bureau was organized by order THE arrangements for the British of the Military Governor, April 14, 1900,

and German South Polar Expeto ascertain the condition of the forests

ditions which sail from Europe and the regulations adopted by the Span- in August, 1901, are nearly completed. It iards for their preservation.

is expected that the English boat, the It is estimated that from one-fourth to Discovery, will be launched in March at one-half the area of the Philippine Isl- Dundee. She is a good strong boat, built ands, or from twenty to forty million on different lines from the Fram, for the acres, are public forest lands. In the isl- latter was planned to resist, or rather esands of Mindoro and Paragua at least cape, tremendous ice-pressure, while the 5,000,000 acres of virgin forests are Discovery was modelled to withstand the owned by the State.

attacks of a boisterous sea. The German The island of Mindanao with an area boat, building at Kiel, is smaller and of 20,000,000 acres, is almost entirely cov- lighter than the Discovery and follows ered with timber. Even in the province somewhat the lines of the Fram. of Cagayan, Luzon, there are more than The two ships sail from Europe totwo million acres of forests. In some of gether. The official statement of their the southern islands magnificent tracts plan of co-operation is as follows: are standing with from 10,000 to 20,000 " When they reach the far South they cubic feet an acre of splendid timber. will separate with a carefully arranged The trees tower to a height of one hun- plan of work for each. The Antarctic dred and fifty feet, often shooting up regions have been divided into four quadsixty feet without a single branch and of rants. First, the Victoria quadrant, , a diameter of four feet.

which extends from 90 degrees east to Captain Ahern, Director of the Bureau, 180 degrees, and includes Victoria Land; believes that there are as many as five second, the Ross quadrant, from 180 dehundred species of trees in the archipel- grees to 90 degrees west, south of the ago. No pure forest of any one species Pacific Ocean ; third, the Weddell quadexists. Rarely do more than three or four rant, from 90 degrees west to o degree trees of one variety grow together. Many (Greenwich meridian), the Weddell Sea;

( varieties of valuable gum, rubber, and and fourth, the Enderby quadrant, from gutta-percha trees are found; also seven- o degree to 90 degrees east, which teen dyewoods and the ylang ylang from includes Enderby Land. Two quadrants whose blossoms so many perfumes are have been assigned for exploration and made.

research to each expedition, the British It is stated the regulations adopted by taking the Victoria and Ross, and the Gerthe Spanish for the preservation of the man the Weddell and Enderby." forests of the Philippines were in line Both expeditions hope to be able to with the most advanced forestry legisla- spend three years in the work. Captain tion of Europe. But these rules were not Drvgalski, the famed explorer of Greenenforced. The men licensed to cut, hewed land, leads the German party, while Capindiscriminately; with the result that the tain Scott of the British Navy, young, most valuable rubber, gutta-percha, and hardy, and level-headed, directs the Engylang ylang trees were used for firewood. lish.

к

log x,

T

THE PRINCIPLES UNDER

face of an isolated submarine peak in

which the crushing strength at any crossLYING THE SURVEY OF

section is equal to the combined weight THE BOTTOM OF THE of the formation above that section and OCEAN FOR AN ALL- of the superincumbent body of water. AMERICAN TRANS. Taking the origin of co-ordinates at PACIFIC CABLE TO THE the apex of the peak, and the axes of y PHILIPPINES AND THE

and x to be vertical and horizontal re

spectively, the equation to the generatORIENT.

28 ing curve would be y +

8 8 HE object of such a survey is so in which k represents the coefficient of to develop the mountain systems of crushing strength of the materials com

the bottom of the ocean that every posing the crust of the earth, the averlarge change of elevation will be dis- age density of these materials, and 8' the closed and allowed for in the laying of density of sea-water. The shape of the the cable; and the problem therefore is formation thus described resembles the to determine the intervals at which deep- form of the Eiffel Tower, but is much flatsea soundings should be taken in order ter in proportion to its height. that important mountain systems may

From the investigation of its propernot escape detection and subsequent de- ties it appears that the radius which a velopment.

prominent orographic feature can have at The survey consists of two main parts: the sea-bottom may be stated to be ten first, direct lines of soundings spaced at

miles. An interval of ten miles coupleu alternate intervals of ten and two miles with an interval of two miles is the very passing between the successive landing longest that would be sufficient for genstations at Honolulu, Midway, Guam, eral development, but these intervals are and Luzon, and also between Guam and small enough to prove with certainty the Yokohama in Japan; and secondly, of existence or absence of any formation sounding stations, twenty miles apart, at rising close to the surface of the deep sea. the turning points of a zigzag route pass

Of all the possible ways in which a ing back and forth to equal distances on ten-mile interval could lie with reference each side of the direct lines of soundings. to a submerged peak, that which would

The direct lines were run in passing be most advantageous for a prompt disto the westward from California to tne covery is the condition in which one end Orient, and they give the general con- of the interval is at the bottom of the tour of the bottom. The zigzag lines

The zigzag lines slope and the other near the apex, and were run in returning to the eastward that which would be least advantageous for the purpose of giving breadth and is the condition in which the interval is configuration to the forms indicated as a bisected by the position of the apex. In result of the depths measured along the the latter case there would be nearly direct lines. This distribution of sound- equal soundings at both ends, but the ings was adopted as a result of a theo- soundings at the ends of the adjacent retical investigation giving the equation two-mile intervals would immediately to the curve which, by revolution around disclose the slopes. a vertical axis, would generate the sur

E. W. LITTLEHALES.

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

AN AROUND-THE-WORLD AMERICAN

EXPOSITION

By Hon. 0. P. Austin, CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS

A

FLOATING exposition, carry- tion is dependent for its success upon ing samples of our merchandise the number of people it can attract to its

-around the world and putting our doors, the traveling salesman represents merchants in touch with those of all but a single establishment or industry, nations, seems to me a fitting Ameri- the commercial museum conveys its incan enterprise for the beginning of the formation only to the seller and not to new century. The nineteenth century the buyer, and the commercial mission has made the United States the greatest gathers information regarding the wants exporting nation of the world ; why not of distant people, but is unable to offer begin the twentieth by showing to all them samples of the goods which its own the world what we have to sell and how

people have to meet those wants. we can sell it?

Why not combine the valuable features Exhibitions of the products of indus- of these various aids to commerce in a try have proved beneficial to trade wher- single great enterprise-a “ floating exever undertaken, whether the ancient position, which shall carry samples of "fair" or the more modern “exposi- our merchandise to the very doors of the tion.” The traveling salesman with his people whose trade we would foster, and sample cases has become a necessity of by bringing the buyer and seller into modern mercantile success ; commer- personal contact, establish such mutual cial museums” exhibit to the dealers of understanding of wants and conditions one country the class of goods required as to facilitate the interchange for which in other lands, and the great European each is desirous ? nations 110w send out “ commercial missions” to inquire into and report upon FIELDS AWAITING AMERICAN the trade opportunities in distant coun

ENTERPRISE. tries.

But each of these methods has its The imports of Asia, Oceania, Africa, limit of influence. The fair or exposi- and the American countries south of the United States amount to over two bill- The coming of an exhibition of this ion dollars every year.

Nearly all of character would attract at each port not these importations are of the very class only the business men of that city, but of goods which we want to sellfoodstuffs, those of other commercial centers in the textiles, mineral oils, machinery, and vicinity, and by this process the wholemanufactures of all kinds; yet our sales sale merchant of the United States would to these grand divisions in the best year speak face to face with those of every of our commerce, 1900, only amounted country visited, and in these discussions to about $200,000,000, or 10 per cent would learn in a practical way the obstaof their purchases. The annual im- cles which now prevent a free interchange ports of Asia and Oceania are over a of commerce and the methods by which billion dollars, those of Africa over four they can be overcome. hundred millions, and those of the coun- In addition to this, a corps of experts tries lying south of the United States could gather samples of the goods now about six hundred millions.

being sold in the countries visited, the Most of the cities through which these prices obtained, the lengthof credit given, two billion dollars' worth of goods are the banking and exchange facilities exfirst distributed lie on the seacoast,

and isting and required, and other facts which could be readily reached by a fleet of would prove valuable not only to those vessels loaded with samples of American directly participating in the enterprise, products and manufactures. It is well but to all manufacturers and merchants known that the lack of practical know- of the United States, by their exhibitiou ledge as to the local trade requirements, in commercial museumsand by published such as inethods of packing, kind of reports. goods required, length of credit, etc., is the chief obstacle to the introduction of THE FINANCING OF A FLOATING American goods in these countries, and

EXPOSITION. that until this obstacle shall have been overcome we cannot expect to obtain the The financing of an undertaking which share in that trade to which our location contemplates sending a fleet of a half and facilities of production and manu

dozen vessels for a two years' voyage facture entitle us.

around the world appears at first sight a If a floating exposition were system- serious problem ; but present conditions atically organized, loading one vessel seem to be exceptionally favorable. with exhibits of foodstuffs, another with The producers, manufacturers, and textiles, another with agricultural im- merchants of the United States are plements and vehicles, another with greatly interested in the extension of manufactures of iron and steel, another markets for American goods, and the with household requirements, and an- Bureau of Statistics is daily besieged other with “Yankee notions,” and sent with inquiries for information bearing from port to port and continent to con- upon this subject. The past three years tinent, it should prove highly advanta- have been exceptionally successful, and geous to our commercial relations with yet have shown the necessity of finding all of the countries visited.

an increased outlet for the surplus which Every manufacturer or exporter send- the American manufacturers show theming an exhibit would naturally send with selves capable of producing, and it seems it a capable representative, who could dis- not unreasonable to believe that they cuss with the local merchant the qualities would look upon a reasonable expendiof his goods and their fitness or unfitness ture for the extension of trade as money for local markets.

well invested. A great world's fair has

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