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Furthermore, the price of land in the kingdom has fallen, making new agricultural holdings undesirable. Hon. Seth Low has resigned the presidency of the American Geographical Society of New York city. Mr. Low was elected president to succeed the late Judge Daly.

It is announced in the Geographical Journal that a magnetic survey of India is to be made by the Indian Government. In addition to the observatories at Bombay and Calcutta, others are to be built at Dehia Dun, Kodaikanal, and Rangoon. The work is to be directed by the Survey and Meteorological Departments jointly.

Colonial Administration is the title of a special report by Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, now in press and soon ready for distribution. Mr. Austin passed the earlier months of 1901 in the capitals of Europe studying the colonial departments of the European governments, and this important volume is the result of his researches and observations. Not one case of yellow fever occurred in Habana during the month of October, the month during which the fever is most prevalent in Cuba. In October, 1900, there were 308 cases, of which 74 died. This remarkable change is the result of an untiring war on the mosquito, waged by the sanitary officers of Habana. Major Gorgas, chief medical officer of Habana, reports that no attempt was made to disinfect clothing or to enforce quarantine against the neighboring towns where yellow fever was active. Their only aim was to kill the mosquitoes that had bitten a sick person, and to prevent any more mosquitoes from biting after the case was discovered. There is today an immune population of about 40,000 persons in Habana, which yellow fever has ravaged for 150 years.

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The reciprocity treaties and agreements between the United States and foreign countries since 1850 is the subject of a very timely report issued by Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department. The text of these treaties is given in full, and also the text of such treaties as have been negotiated and are awaiting action. The agreements awaiting ratification by the United States Senate are conventions with Argentina, the French Republic, Bermuda, Jamaica, British Guiana, and Barbados. This valuable bulletin may be obtained by application to the Bureau of Statistics.

The effects of the drought of July, 1901, upon the trade, industry, and commerce of the United States are admirably described by Dr. R. DeC. Ward, of Harvard University, in an article in the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. One striking instance of the effect of the drought may be cited. The withering of the pasturage in the southwest compelled the stockmen to ship thousands of cattle to the markets weeks before they had planned. At Kansas City alone, during the month of July, 1901, 263,000 more head of cattle were received than in July of the preceding year. As a result the market was so overstocked that the buyers dictated prices.

Naturalized Foreigners in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of the foreign born males of voting age in the United States are naturalized or have filed their first naturalization papers. There are about five million foreign born men (5,006,483) who are 21 years or over in the United States proper. Of these, 2,848,324 are naturalized, 412,513 have taken out their first naturalization papers, 1,001,124 have made no application to become American citizens, and the condition of 744,522 is unknown-that is, of every 1,000 foreign born males of voting age 569 are American citizens, 82 have taken steps to become American citizens, 200 are still aliens, and the condition of 149 is unknown.

The British Government has made arrangements to send its mail for Australia and New Zealand via the United States instead of by the present route down the Suez Canal, the Red Sea, and across the Indian Ocean. This announcement is made by George H. Daniels, general passenger agent of the New York Central. A fast steamer will convey the mail to New York, where it will be placed on a Pacific Coast express and connect with the Oceanic Steamship Company vessels at San Francisco an average, six or seven days will be saved in the passage to Australia. Doubtless Europeans bound for Australia will soon follow the mail.



time gained is a small advantage to the traveler compared to the comfort of passing the entire trip in a cool climate instead of sweltering on a slow steamer on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

The completed report of the Isthmian Canal Commission differs but slightly from the preliminary report of the Commission, an abstract of which, with map, appeared in the January, 1901, number of this Magazine. The Commission, as before, favor the Nicaragua route, esti

mating that the canal by this route would cost $63,500,000 less than the sum for which the Panama property can be purchased and the canal completed. The final surveys have shortened the proposed Nicaragua route three miles, and have enabled the Commission to plan for eight locks instead of nine. The entire distance is now 183.66 miles, of which 73.78 miles are of the canal proper, and the remainder lake and river. The total cost is estimated at $189,000,000, which is $11,000,000 less than the amount previously reported. This large sum saved is because the engineers have discovered a better site for the gigantic dam that must be built to reguiate the level of Lake Nicaragua.

Territorial Expansion of the United States. The additions made to the thirteen original colonies and the transformation of this territory into separate territories and states is admirably described in a recent useful report by Hon. O. P. Austin. Mr. Austin has shown the different changes in state and territorial boundaries by a series of diagrams. For instance, diagram No. 7, 1803, presents the Louisiana Purchase as one province; No. 8, 1804, shows the province divided into the Louisiana District and the Territory of Orleans; No. 10, 1810, shows the Orleans Territory admitted as the State of Louisiana, and the Louisiana Territory changed in name to the Territory of Missouri. The successive breaking up of the Territory of Missouri into the Territory of Arkansas and the State of Missouri, and all following changes are graphically shown. The diagrams form a series of moving pictures of the rapid changes in the boundaries of our fifty odd states, territories, and possessions.

The Military Information Division of the War Department will publish within a few weeks a comprehensive report on the colonial armies of the great powers.

*Alaska: Volume I, Narrative, Glaciers, Natives. By John Burroughs, John Muir, and George Bird Grinnell. Volume II, History, Geography, Resources. By William H. Dall, Charles Keeler, Henry Gannett, William H. Brewer, C. Hart Merriam, George Bird Grinnell, and M. L. Washburn. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company. 1901. [Superimprinted] Harriman Alaska Expedition, with the coöperation of the Washington Academy of Sciences. [Edited by Dr. C. Hart Merriam.] With 39 colored plates, 85 photogravure plates, 5 maps, and 240 text figures. xxxvii, 383. $15.00


One of the handsomest pieces of bookmaking ever produced has recently appeared in the form of a report on the Harriman Alaska Expedition. The two sumptuous volumes are models in such matters as typography, paper, binding, and the like; they are unique, at least so far as solid scientific literature is concerned, in certain matters of execution, such as the neat loose covers matching the permanent binding; the numerous color-plates touch a new apex in the triangular ideals of fidelity to nature, strength of expression, and refinement in line and tone; the photogravures are unexcelled examples of that mode of picturing which was last century's richest gift to art, while the text cuts are at once germane, graphic, and artistic. The first impression produced by the book is that it is a thing of beauty.

The body of the work begins with John Burroughs' narrative of the expedition. It is a novel chapter in the history of expeditionary enterprise. The family would go a-touring; the head

*"The General Geography of Alaska," by Henry Gannett, one chapter in this remarkable work, was published in full in the May, 1901, number of this Magazine.

thereof would have the tour instructive; so the family was temporarily enlarged to a ship-load of congenial folk, including a "scientific party" of 25 eminent savants who were to breathe out the instruction. Then, to tempt the grave and reverend seigniors, as well as to give zest to the lessons, provision was made for research along new lines-for actually augmenting the sum of human knowledge and a corps of artists, photographers, stenographers, and doctors was added, together with officers and crew of the good ship George W. Elder. The full outfit aggregated 126 persons, with such facilities and supplies that when all was done (with the milch cow left over) and the party debarked, the faithful poet-scribe jotted the feeling that all had traveled far and fared well" ere he dropped his pen. before reaching this mild benediction, he drew one of the most telling word pictures of geographic journeying ever done in this land of magnificent distances. The enthusiastic glacialist, John Muir, follows Burroughs with a memoir on "Pacific Coast Glaciers,” and the versatile editor of Forest and Stream, Dr. George Bird Grinnell, describes the "Natives of the Alaska Coast Region." Both of these contributions represent the results of previous researches, as well as those of observations made during the expedition; and the legion of new-found and newly christened glaciers receive special attention. The second volume opens with a succinct account of discovery and exploration in the territory by the veteran Alaskan, Dr. W. H. Dall; Dr. Charles Keeler describes the birds, and Prof. Bernard E. Fernow discusses the forests; Henry Gannett follows with a summary of Alaskan geography, already printed in this Magazine, while Prof. William H. Brewer discusses the peculiar atmos

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pheric effects of Alaska; Dr. Merriam describes Bogoslof, our newest Volcano, and Dr. Grinnell and M. L. Washburn. respectively, summarize the salmon industry and the fox farming of our remote commonwealth- and more strictly literary features attest the inspiration of a trip in which the prosaic and the poetic were so happily blent. Naturally, in view of the eminent authorship, the several chapters are notably authentic and trustworthy; and the whole must long serve as the standard source of general information concerning the vast territory just entering on a promising career of industrial, commercial, and social development. Nor are these two volumes all; for additional chapters, prepared through the cooperation of the Washington Academy of Sciences, are to follow so soon as the material is elaborated

The work is a notable one in plan and scope, and in the combination of utility and beauty displayed by the volumes— indeed, such are its excellencies that the chief imperfections readily detected are merely (1) insufficient recognition of the editorial labors, and (2) the absence of a trenchant title-for, despite an acceptable title-page caption the full titles are unlike, and the name on the back is that of the expedition and not that of the book.


'Twixt Sudan and Menelik. By Capt. M. S. Wellby, with many illustrations and two maps. New York : Harper & Bros. 1901.

There is an art of travel in wild countries; an art made up of all sorts of applied knowledge-physiology, medicine, engineering, cooking, shooting, and human sympathy. Of this art Captain Wellby was a master, and a greater master, I think, than would be suggested by his book, save to those who have had some experience similar to his own. There is no systematic attempt to teach

his art, nor is there indeed any systematic presentation of the results of a very notable journey through unknown regions. The author explains that preparation for service in South Africa followed fast upon his return from the Sudan. There was thus but little time for the sifting and arrangement of the very large mass of material which must have been obtained by a traveler of such experience and intelligence.

Yet all who are interested in African exploration must rejoice that fate permitted the making of this straightforward story before carrying its author to an heroic death on the veldt. In the book one finds something of that oversupply of detail which mars nine-tenths of all the books of travel. Yet happily Captain Wellby had an instinctive elective faculty which gives to the greater part of even the trivial recitals a value either for the stay-at-home or for other wanderers. Indeed, for the traveler, some hints may be taken from almost every page. And the chief lesson is perhaps this that kindness of heart and sweet charity are not thrown away when shown toward black Africans. Nay, not more than if shown to your own friends. A less sympathetic man, a man less truly brave than Captain Wellby, might have recounted more of startling adventure and less of instruction.

The most valuable portion of the book is, of course, that dealing with the journey from Addis Abeba to the White Nile, since the route from Zeila to Addis Abeba is already well known. Captain Wellby's narrative has much importance as bearing upon the country and peoples met as one travels southwestwardly from Menelik's capital. Intertribal feuds and Abyssinian raids may seriously change the locus, the numbers, even the views, of several small tribes whose present habitat had never, before Captain Wellby's appearance, known the white man's presence. This first record is therefore of spe

cial importance to the student of primitive man. A suggestion of the varied experiences met within the journey through the Lake Rudolf (or Gallop) region and the country lying to the west of the lake is had in reading the list of the names of tribes, many of them unknown, none of them well known. Thus, Arusi Galla, Walamo, Alibori, Wangobeino, Gallopa, Lokub, Turkana, Loka, Abbas, Tamata, Boma, Morelli, Shillaks, and Dinkas. Of these the Walamo are noteworthy for their alleged and widely credited power of bewitching with devils. The Turkana are remarkable for their great size. Captain Wellby puts a higher estimate than most travelers upon the capacity of the Abyssinian character in respect to the higher emotions-friendship, charity, generosity-the very qualities which would be most readily developed by his own lovable nature. One is permitted to doubt the author's prediction that most of their present defects will be largely cured by intercourse with Europeans. In using well-established native names of lakes and rivers, rather than those proper names of European travelers assigned for glory's sake, Captain Wellby administers a reproof to vanity. The general reader of this important book will inevitably feel a sympathetic interest in its author. The graceful introduction and epilogue, written respectively by his friends Colonel Harrington and Sir Rennel Rodd, will pleasantly gratify this interest. Many good photographs and two maps add to the value of the text.


Animals of the Past. By F. A. Lucas. With many illustrations. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co. $2.00.

Mr. Lucas has given the public a book that has long been needed, an authoritative but simply written account of the strange animals of past ages. In a chapter on the "Rulers of the ancient seas," the author sketches the succes

sive races of creatures who ruled the oceans long before the advent of man. "For a time the armor-clad fishes held undisputed sway; then their reign was ended by the coming of the sharks, who in their turn gave way to the fish-lizards, the Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs." Then came great marine reptiles, who extended their empire from New Zealand to North America, the Mosasaurs. These maintained their headquarters in the oceans that rolled over western Kansas. As this great plain in the course of hundreds of centuries was gradually lifted, they were imprisoned, the weaker captured by the stronger, and in time even the latter were strangled by the freshening of the water or starved by the disappearance of their food supply. Then sharks came into power again, small sharks with little teeth and great sharks with gaping jaws six feet across and inside hundreds of gleaming teeth, three, four, and five inches long. These enormous sharks swarmed everywhere that the water was warm, and then they disappeared utterly. Chapter headings of the volume are as follows: "Fossils and how they are formed," "The earliest known vertebrates," "Impressions of the past,' Rulers of the ancient seas, "Birds of old," "The Dinosaurs," "Reading the riddles of the rocks, "Feathered giants," "The ancestry of the horse,"

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The mammoth," The mastodon," "Why do animals become extinct?"

Our National Parks. By John Muir. With illustrations. New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.75.

The magnificence of scenery of the western United States and what is being done to preserve it by reservations like the Yosemite and Yellowstone National Parks is the theme of this volume. Mr. Muir says his aim in writing the series of sketches has been to incite people "to come and enjoy them [the national parks] and get them into their hearts,

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