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N June, 1900, there were in the United States proportionally a few more females than in 1890, a greater proportion of the population was native born, and there were also proportionally more whites; or, stated conversely, there were proportionally fewer males, fewer foreigners, and fewer blacks than ten years ago.

In other words, during the past ten years the number of women has been growing slightly more rapidly than the number of men; the native born population has increased at nearly double the rate of increase of the foreign born, the foreign element having increased at less than one-third of the rate of increase of the foreign born during the preceding decade, and the number of whites has increased to quite an extent more rapidly than has the number of blacks.

These are the main conclusions derived from a study of the figures presented in a recent Census Bulletin.*

The total population of the United States on June 1, 1900, was 76,303,387, including persons enumerated at military and naval stations and naval ships abroad and in Alaska, Hawaii, Indian Territory, and Indian reservations.

* Census Bulletin No. 103.

This great total consisted of 39,059, 242 males and 37,244, 145 females <-a majority for the males of 1,815,097. Expressed differently, of each 10,000 inhabitants 5,118 were boys and men and 4,882 were girls and women. Ten years before there were 32,315,053 males and 30,754,693 females, or of every 10,000 inhabitants 5, 124 were males and 4,876 were females. The females have thus increased only a very little more rapidly than the males. In 1900, in 10,000 inhabitants there were 236 more men than women, whereas in 1890, in the same number of inhabitants, there were 248 more men than women. Expressed in percentages, there has been an increase in males of 20.9 per cent and in females of 21.1 per cent.

Of native born persons there were 65,843,302 and of foreign born 10,460, 085 in 1900-that is, of every 1,000 persons in 1900, 863 were born in the United States and only 137 outside the borders of the country. In 1890, on the other hand, there were 53,761,665 native born and 9,308,091 foreign born, or of every 1,000 persons 852 were native and 148 foreign born.

During the ten years the native born increased at nearly double the rate of in

crease of the foreign born, the former increasing 22.5 per cent and the latter only 12.4 per cent. If we exclude the foreign born counted in Hawaii, Alaska, and at military and naval stations abroad, in the United States itself the foreign element increased by only 1,091,729, or 11.8 per cent, whereas during the preceding decade it increased by 2,569,604, or 38.5 per cent—that is, during the last ten years the foreign element increased at less than one-third of its rate of increase during the preceding decade. In absolute numbers there was an addition to our native born population of 12,081,637, and to our foreign born of 1,151,994.

There are Japanese, 2 Chinese, 3 Indians, 116 negroes, and 878 whites in every 1,000 of the population. It should be noted that every person of negro descent is included among the negroes.

The totals of the different classes are 66,990,802 white persons, 8,840,789 persons of negro descent, 119,050 Chinese, 85,986 Japanese, and 266,760 Indians, or a total colored element of 9,312,585 persons.

The negro element thus constitutes 11.6 per cent of the total population, a slightly less percentage than in 1890, when it formed 11.9 per cent. It has not, however, been increasing so rapidly as the white population, showing an increase of only 18.1 per cent as against an increase of 21.4 per cent for the whites. The absolute increase of the whites has been 11,824,618 during the ten years, and of the negroes 1,352,001.

The different elements of which the population is composed and their respective rates of increase are clearly summarized in the following table taken from the report:


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In the preceding paragraphs the increase in the foreign born in the United States as a whole has been discussed, but it is interesting to inquire further into the nature of the increase. In what sections and states is the increase concentrated, how does the nationality of the immigrants of the past decade compare with the nationality of the immigrants of the preceding decade, and what is the present distribution through out the country of our foreign born inhabitants?

Four-fifths of the increase in the number of foreigners in the United States during the past decade are found in the states constituting the North Atlantic division. Of the total increase of 1,091, 729, as large a proportion as 874,619 occur in this section, while the increase in the South Atlantic division is only 7,505; in the North Central division, 98,360; in the South Central division, 35,834, and in the Western division,


Thus of every thousand increase of foreign born 801 are concentrated in the six New England States and in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. During the preceding decade, however, the largest share in the increase of our foreign born was found in the states constituting the North Central division-Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas. These states then showed 44.5 per cent and the North Atlantic states 41.8 per cent of the increase in foreign born during the ten years.

In every section of the country the percentage of increase of the foreign born for the decade has greatly diminished. Even in the North Atlantic division there has been a considerable loss in this respect, the percentage of increase for the foreign born for the ten years being only 22.5 per cent as against 38.5 per cent for the preceding decade.

The decrease was especially noticeable in the North Central and the Western divisions, in which the rate of increase for the foreign born fell from 39.2 and 54.2 per cent to 2.4 and 9.8 per cent respectively.

In each section also, excepting in the North Atlantic division, the rate of increase of the foreign born was less than the rate of increase of the native born. In the New England States and in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, however, the foreign born have increased a little faster than the native born-22.5 per cent as against 20.5 per cent.



The remarkable change that has taken place in the character of the immigration of late years largely accounts for the recent concentration in the North Atlantic division. During 1891-1900, 3,687,564 immigrants entered the United States, one and one-half million less than in the ten years preceding. Of German immigrants during the past decade there were 505, 152, whereas during the preceding ten years there were as many as 1,452,970. Norway and Sweden's contribution during 1891-1900 was 321,281 as against 568,362 during 1881-1890. The figures for Great Britain and Ireland show a similar decrease. On the other hand, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia and Poland during the past decade sent over 1,846,616 immigrants, about double the number contributed by them during 1881-1890.

Thirty years ago Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, and Norway and Sweden sent 90.4 per cent of all the immigrants entering the United States, and Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia and Poland a scanty 1.1 per cent. 1880 the first group were contributing 81.7 per cent and the second group 6.4 per cent; in 1890, the first, 73.9 per cent, while the second had grown to


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Diagram showing the Percentage of Native and Foreign Born in all States and Territories having at least One Per Cent of their Population Foreign Born

The darkened portion represents the Foreign Born

17.6 per cent. During the decade just ended the former group supplied only 40.4 per cent, while the latter furnished fully one-half, or 50.1 per cent. This new element of Poles, Italians, and Hungarians have settled in the mining districts of Pennsylvania and in the manufacturing towns of New York, New Jersey, and New England. They now form the bulk of laborers in these states, having superseded the Irish in the heavy work of digging trenches for railways or sewers and in the making and repairing. of roads. No better example could be cited than the present work of digging a way for the underground system of New York City. The majority of the laborers are Italians and Poles, whereas fifteen or twenty years ago such work would have been mainly done by Irish


The Census Bureau has not yet published the relative components of our foreign population, but it is interesting to note the nationalities that make up our total immigration, amounting to 19.115,221 in 80 years. Germany has contributed over one-fourth, 5,009,280; Ireland slightly more than one-fifth, 3,869, 268; Great Britain one-fifth, 3,026,207; Norway and Sweden nearly one-fifteenth, 1,246,312; Canada and Newfoundland, 1,049,939; Italy, 1,040,457; Austria-Hungary, 1,027, 195, and all other countries about one-tenth, 1,919, 661.

Probably one-fourth of our immigrants have during the past ten years returned to their old homes. Three and one-half millions are recorded as having entered the country, but there is an increase in our foreign born population of only about one million, conclusive proof that many remain in America for only a short period.


The diagram on page 384 shows the relative percentage of foreign and native

born in each state of the Union. North Dakota leads, with the largest percentage of foreign born, Rhode Island follows next, Massachusetts is third, and Minnesota fourth. These four states, together with Montana, Connecticut, and New York, are the only states that have approximately one-fourth or more of their population of foreign birth. California, Montana, and Nevada stand high up in the list because of the numerous Chinese and Japanese in these

Six states-North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee-are not included in the diagram, for each of these six states has less than 1 per cent of its population foreign born.

The states comprising the North Atlantic division have the largest percentage of foreign born, there being in this. division 226 foreigners to 774 nativeborn. As has been previously noted, these are also the only states in which the foreign born have increased more rapidly than the native born during the last decade.

A natural result of the great immigration period of 1881-1890, when over half a million immigrants entered the United States annually, would be a large increase during the succeeding decade in the number of persons born in the country of foreign parents. Such, in fact, proves to be the case. In the last ten years the native whites of foreign parents have increased at the rate of 36.2 per cent, which is nearly double the rate of increase of native whites of native parentage, 18.9 per cent. For the most part, these sons and daughters born on American soil of foreign parents grow up as thoroughly American in thought and act as the descendants of the earliest settlers.

If we include in the foreign element the children of foreign white parents, the foreign element now constitutes about one-third of the total population-34 per cent. The native whites of native par

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