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as the northern boundary west of the Rocky Mountains, seemed to be a recognition by the United States of the importance of the British pretensions sufficient to warrant mention on the map. The Treaty of 1819 (the Florida Cession) had already served as a conclusive relinquishment by Spain of any claim in this quarter. Therefore the conference, considering these facts, together with the historical narrative of discoveries and occupations on the northwest coast of America by both Spanish and British explorers and adventurers, and the part played by traders, explorers, and settlers from the United States within the territory known under the name of Oregon in the eighteenth century, determined to place as a legend on the face of the map, to describe briefly and with historical accuracy the area in question, the following words: Oregon Territory discovered and settled; British claim extinguished, 1846.


Texas was next in order for discussion and determination, and the conference decided, almost without debate, that the northwestern boundary of that territory, as admitted to statehood in the Union, should be that defined on the map of the General Land Office-the line there shown coinciding closely with the line on the Disturnell " Map of the United Mexican States," 1847, filed with the Treaty of 1848 as a part of that convention.


The southern boundary of the United States west of the Rio Grande, 1848, was determined in the same manner but with a different result, the line adopted being that indicated on the Disturnell map, according to the conference's interpretation of that chart. The facts are adequately stated by Major Emory at page 16 of his Report

on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, volume 1, as follows:

"It is proper for me, however, before closing this chapter, to refer to a publication issued by Mr. J. R. Bartlett, one of the late commissioners on the part of the United States, which professes to give an accurate account of the affairs of the commission. It is not my purpose to review that work, and expose its errors, but simply to correct some statements affecting myself.

"Mr. Bartlett's principal achievement on the boundary was the agreement with General Conde, the Mexican commissioner, fixing the initial point. on the Rio Bravo (i. e., Rio Grande), in the parallel of 32° 22', instead of a point as laid down on the treaty map, about eight miles above El Paso, which would have brought it to the parallel of 31° 52'. That agreement is no less remarkable than the adroitness and success with which Mr. Bartlett convinced the authorities at Washington of its


"The question has been so thoroughly discussed that a reproduction of it is not called for. It is sufficient to say here that it was disapproved by the astronomer and surveyor on the commission at the time, and was finally repudiated by the Government.

My signature as surveyor was only required, as alleged, to perfect the official documents; the words of the order were: You will sign the map of the initial point agreed upon by the two commissioners.'

"By reference to the treaty it will be seen that any agreement of the kind required the action of the joint commission, and that the joint commission was to be composed not only of the two commissioners, but of the two surveyors also.

"I refused to recognize the act as that of the joint commission, and signed the map as the order directed, carefully and studiously attaching a

certificate that it was the initial point of the two commissioners; and to prevent the possibility of misconstruction, an agreement in writing was entered into with Mr. Salazar, and our signatures attested by witnesses, showing that the map was only that of the boundary agreed upon by the two commissioners, and nothing else.

"This course, while it permitted me to obey a specific order in writing from a superior, left the Government free to act, and repudiate the agreement by the two commissioners, as it subsequently did."

As the line on the Disturnell map delimiting the southern boundary of the United States under the Treaty of 1848 is identical with the northern boundary of the territory purchased in 1853, the conference next arrived at the point of considering


An examination of the treaties, of the report of Major W. H. Emory, already

referred to and quoted, and other evidence, together with a study of the treaty map, developed the fact that the repudiated line agreed to by one of the United States commissioners, Mr. J. R. Bartlett, and the Mexican commissioner, General Conde, seems to have been adopted by the General Land Office, though after having been run only one and one-half degrees west from the point of beginning, about 38 miles north of Paso, the survey was abandoned and the line repudiated by the Government of the United States. The line indicated by the treaty or Disturnell map begins at a point about eight miles north of Paso or El Paso, runs west three degrees on a parallel, and thence north on a meridian to the first branch of the Gila River. This line was adopted by the conference as the eastern part of the northern boundary of the Gadsden Purchase. The conclusion was reached after consideration of Mr. Bartlett's claims, Major Emory's report, the action of the Government, and the treaty map.




HE object of the German Antarctic expedition is the scientific exploration of the South Polar regions, particularly on its IndoAtlantic side.

In pursuance of this object, it left Germany on the 11th of August, 1901, and is proceeding to Three Island Harbor, Royal Sound, in the Kerguelen Islands, where a base station will be established. In December, 1901, it is expected that the expedition will be ready for its real work of exploration and will push on toward the south as far as prac

ticable. Should land be reached, a station will be founded and maintained for a year and the ship wintered there. Whether any later attempt to push still farther south will be made is not yet determined. It will not, at all events, be undertaken unless the conditions should prove particularly favorable.

The expedition has general orders to remain until its tasks are satisfactorily executed, but in any case not to remain beyond June, 1904, at which date it must report at some harbor in communication with home. Should no news

be received of the expedition by the first of June of that year, it will be in order to consider the expediency of fitting out a relief ship.

The leader of the expedition, Dr. Erich von Drygalski, of Berlin, was appointed by His Majesty the Emperor, and has thoroughly studied the problems of South Polar regions. He has been placed in absolute control of the South Polar ship Gauss, its personnel and equipment. All the arrangements for the work to be carried on from the time the ship left Germany are under his direction and subject entirely to his control. Marine laws regulate the position of the ship's company toward its leader.

The expedition is an undertaking of the German Empire, and is fitted out through the Secretary of State for the Interior, Herr Dr. Graf von PosadowskyWehner. It sails under the Imperial Service flag, and its officers and men bear special service designations authorized from the highest quarters. It is thoroughly well equipped, both scientifically and practically, for its ($10,000) mission. In addition to the funds provided by the Empire, about 40,000 marks in small amounts have been contributed by private societies. The interest aroused in the expedition throughout the Empire has been very great, and has led to the presentation of many valuable gifts and offerings which will add much to the efficiency of the equipment.

All the members of the expedition will be paid their regular and special remuneration from the imperial funds. They are also well insured against accidents and diseases caused by the climate. Risks too great for ordinary marine insurance companies to assume are borne by the Empire.

The results of the expedition and the collections made by it will be the property of the Empire, which will assume charge of their disposal. The scientific members of the expedition will be em

ployed in the arrangement of the collections in such manner as their usefulness on the expedition warrants. They have to address all their suggestions and desires to the leader of the expedition, who will make all further arrangements. The personnel of the expedition, beside the leader, who will conduct the oceanographical and geodetic work, are as follows:

a. The scientific members: Prof. Dr. E. Vanhoffen, Kiel, for zoology and botany; Dr. H. Gazert, Munich, physician and bacteriologist; Dr. E. Philippi, Breslau, for geology and chemistry; Dr. F. Bidlingmaier, Lauffen, for earthmagnetism and meteorology.

b. The commander of the Gauss, a captain of the Hamburg-American line, Hans Ruser, from Hamburg, who was selected with the permission of His Majesty the Emperor.

c. The ship's officers: W. Lerche, from Stettin, first officer; R. Vahsel, from Hanover, second officer, both from the Hamburg-American line; L. Ott, from Hochst, second officer; A. Stehr, from Hamburg, first engineer.

d. The crew of the Gauss, which consists of two assistant engineers, two machinists, two boatmen, one Norwegian pilot, one cook, one steward, 6 seamen, and five stokers-in all, 20 men.

e. The personnel selected for the Kerguelen station consists of Dr. E. Werth, from Munster, as biologist Dr. K. Luyken, from Munich, as meteorologist, and two seamen.

The Kerguelen station is chiefly intended for magnetic and meteorological observations, which, as well as similar work conducted by the German Chief expedition, will be carried on in accord ance with the international program agreed on with England. This program has been sent to all States having magnetic-meteorological stations, as well as to the stations themselves, with the request for cooperation. Many have already signified their readiness to do so.

It will also be followed at the station established by the Argentine Republic on Staten Island. Coöperation in all other sciences with the English expedi

tion and all other expeditions to be sent out by other States has been regulated in the best manner by the division into spheres of work.



Ta meeting of the Board of Managers, held on September 28, the Lecture Committee reported an attractive provisional program for the season of 1901-1902. It provides for continuing the three classes of meetings, viz Technical Meetings, to be held in the Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club; Popular Lectures, to be delivered in the First Congregational Church, and Afternoon Lectures, to be delivered in Columbia Theater.

A program for the earlier part of the season will be issued to members about October 10.

Subject to transposition in dates, the calendar proposed for November and December is as follows:

November 1.-Technical Meeting: Sym

posium on the Growth and Prospects of the Society; President Graham Bell, followed by Prof. Angelo Heilprin and others. November 8.-Popular Meeting: Near

est Lands to the Pole; H. L. Bridgman, Vice-President, Arctic Club. November 15.-Technical Meeting: The Lost Boundary of Texas; Marcus Baker, Cartographer U. S. Geological Survey.

November 22.-Popular Meeting: Interior Borneo; Dr. A. C. Haddon, of Oxford, England.

November 29.-Technical Meeting: Subjects to be announced later. December 6.-Popular Meeting: A Winter in Ellesmereland; Dr. Robert Stein.

December 13.-Technical Meeting: Subjects to be announced later. December 20.-Popular Meeting: A Half-century's Immigration; Hon. F. F. McSweeney, Assistant Commissioner of Immigration. December 27.-Holiday vacation.

Lectures in contemplation for later Popular Meetings are: Conditions and Prospects in the Philippines, by Gen. A. W. Greely; The Trans-Siberian Railway, by Hon. Ebenezer J. Hill; Cliff Dwellings of Mesa Verde, by Mrs. John Hays Hammond; The Appalachian Forest Reserve, by Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture; The Chinese Problem; Sweden Today, by William Eleroy Curtis; The Nicaraguan Canal; The Great Pyramid, by Prof. W. Edwin Priest; Colombia ; Pacific Cables, Actual and Proposed; The Danish Islands; Japanese Art and Literature, together with other topics rendered timely by circumstances.

The general subject for the Afternoon, or Lenten, Lectures is "Problems of the Pacific. The dates and special topics proposed are :

Wednesday, February 19.-Japan. Wednesday, February 26.-Hawaii. Wednesday, March 5.-Polynesia. Wednesday, March 12.-Australia and New Zealand.

Wednesday, March 19.-Physical Features of the Great Oceanic Basin. Wednesday, March 26.-The Pacific as a Factor in World-Growth.



HE distribution of the agricultural exports of the United States for the years 1896 to 1900 are given in a recent report of Frank H. Hitchcock, Chief of the Division of Foreign Markets of the Department of Agriculture. The figures show that during the year 1900 there were twelve countries to each of which the United States exported over $10,000,000 worth of domestic farm produce. A total of $408,000,000 was purchased by the United Kingdom, while Germany bought $134,000,000 worth. The agricultural exports of the country to the United Kingdom during the year were the greatest on record, excepting those of the year 1898, when a total value of $439,000,000 was reached. In regard to Germany, the exports show an increase of about 100 per cent in the fiveyear period. Following the countries above named come others in the positions indicated:

The Netherlands, $52,000,000; these figures being exceeded only in 1899 by less than $1,000,000; France, $45,000, 000; Belgium, $33,000,000, as against $31,000,000 in 1896 to France and $18, 000,000 to Belgium during the same year; Italy, $24,000,000; Canada, $21, 000,000; Japan, over $15,000,000; Denmark, nearly $15,000,000; Cuba, $14, 000,000, as against $4,000,000 in 1896; Spain, $10,500,000, as against a trifle less than $10,000,000 in 1896; British Africa, $10,300,000. Exports ranging in value from $5,515,000 down went to more than a dozen different countries.

The total exports of domestic farm products to Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines in the year 1900 attained an aggregate value of over $20,000,000, an increase of some 300 per cent over the year 1896. In the case of South America, however, the total showed a decline. A very striking gain was made on the Asiatic Continent, where the exports in value rose from $5,735,000 in 1896 to $9,452,000 in 1900.

Traffic on the Suez Canal.-Only two of the nations having any commercial marine had a lower record than the United States in the amount of shipping passing through the Suez Canal last year. The United States stood twelfth on the list of nations, with only .6 of I per cent of the shipping passing through the canal, and the two nations below that were Turkey, with 3 of 1 per cent, and Belgium, at .1 of 1 per cent. Even nations like Japan, Italy, Spain, Denmark, and Norway exceeded our record, while Great Britain had 56.7 per cent, and Germany 15 per cent.

No News of Captain Sverdrup and the Fram is brought back by the Peary relief ship Erik. At Disco Inspector Jansen and Governor Neilson reported that in March, 1901, a steamer was seen far off the shore, in Davis Straits, heading northward, which might have been the Fram. Peary's failure to meet her or discover any trace of her work in his Greenland coast journeys lends color to the generally accepted theory that, finding a high northern latitude impracticable, she has attempted the upper Jones Sound and the little known lands and waters to the westward.

The Expedition sent out by the Duke of Abruzzi to search for the three lost members of his Polar expedition has returned without finding any traces of the missing men. The southern coast of Franz Josef Land having been explored without avail, the memorial to the three men arranged for by the Duke was erected on Cape Flora.

Dr. Robert Stein, who embarked at Etah in the Windward about the time of the sailing of the Peary party, has reported the safe arrival of that vessel at Brigus, Newfoundland.

Erratum.-Page 326, first column, line 10, instead of Gerhard "Kaufmann'' read Gerhard Kremer.

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