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canic region, of the mountain ranges, and especially of any fossiliferous rocks.

9. A German expedition will start at the same time as the Discovery, and it is hoped that there will be cordial coöperation between the two expeditions as regards magnetic and meteorological observations, and in all other matters if opportunities offer for such coöperation. It is understood that the German expedition will establish an observatory on Kerguelen Island, and will then proceed to explore the Enderby quadrant, probably shaping a course south between the 70° E. and 80° E. meridians, with the object of wintering on the western side of Victoria Land, whence exploring sledge parties will be sent inland. The gov ernment of the Argentine Republic has undertaken to establish a magnetic observatory on Staten Island.

10. You will see that the meteorological observations are regularly taken every two hours, and, also, in accordance with a suggestion from the Berlin committee, every day at Greenwich noon. It is very desirable that there should, if possible, be a series of meteorological observations to the south of the 74th parallel.

11. As regards magnetic work and meteorological observations generally, you will follow the program arranged between the German and British committees, with the terms of which you are acquainted.

12. Whenever it is possible, while at sea, deep-sea sounding should be taken with serial temperatures, and samples of sea water at various depths are to be obtained for physical and chemical analysis. Dredging operations are to be carried on as frequently as possible, and all opportunities are to be taken for making biological and geological collections.

13. Instructions will be supplied for the various scientific observations; and the officers of the expedition will be furnished with a manual, prepared and

edited by Dr. George Murray, on similar lines and with the same objects as the scientific manuals supplied to the Arctic expedition of 1875.

14. On leaving this country you are to proceed to Melbourne, or Lyttelton. (Christchurch), New Zealand, touching at any port or ports on the way that you may consider it necessary or desirable to visit for supplies or repairs. Before leaving your base station you will fill up with live stock, coal, and other necessaries, and you will leave the port with three years' provisions on board, and fully supplied for wintering and for sledge-traveling.

15. You are to proceed at once to the edge of the pack and to force your vessel through it to the open water to the south. The pack is supposed to be closer in December than it has been found to be later in the season. But this is believed to depend rather on its position than on the time, and the great difference between a steamer and a sailing vessel perhaps makes up for any difference in the condition of the pack.

16. On reaching the south water you are at liberty to devote to exploration the earlier portion of the navigable season; but such exploration should, if possible, include an examination of the coast from Cape Johnson to Cape Crozier, with a view to finding a safe and suitable place for the operations of landing in the event of your deciding that the ship shall not winter in the ice.

The chief points of geographical interest are as follows: To explore the Ice Barrier of Sir James Ross to its eastern extremity, to discover the land which was believed by Ross to flank the barrier to the eastward or to ascertain that it does not exist, and generally to endeavor to solve the very important physical and geographical questions connected with this remarkable ice formation.

17. Owing to our very imperfect knowledge of the conditions which prevail in the Antarctic seas, we cannot

pronounce definitely whether it will be necessary for the ship to make her way out of the ice before the winter sets in or whether she should winter in the Antarctic regions. It is for you to decide on this important question after a careful examination of the local conditions.

18. If you should decide that the ship shall winter in the ice, the following instructions are to be observed:

a. Your efforts, as regards geographical exploration, should be directed, with the help of depots, to three objects, namely, an advance into the western mountains, an advance to the south, and the exploration of the volcanic region.

b. The director and his staff shall be allowed all facilities for the prosecution of their researches.

c. In carrying out a and b due regard is to be had to the safety and requirements of the expedition as a whole.

d. You have been provided by Sir Leopold McClintock and by Dr. Nansen with complete details respecting sledgework both by men and dogs, and you have yourself superintended every item of the preparations connected with food, clothing, and equipment. You will be guided by the information and knowledge thus acquired.

e. Lieutenant Armitage, R. N. R., who has been appointed second in command and navigator to the expedition, has had experience in the work of taking astronomical, magnetic, and meteorological observations during three Polar winters. He has also acquired experience in sledge-traveling and in the driving and management of dogs. You will, no doubt, find his knowledge and experience of great use.

f. Early in 1903 your ship should be free from the ice of the winter quarters, and you will devote to further exploration by sea so much of the navigable season as will certainly leave time for the ship to return to the north of the pack ice. Having recruited at your base

station, you will then proceed with your magnetic survey across the Pacific and return to this country.

19. If, on the other hand, you should decide not to winter, you will bear in mind that it is most important to maintain scientific observations on land throughout the winter, and therefore if you are able, in consultation with the director, to find a suitable place for a landing party between Cape Johnson and Cape Crozier, and decide that such a party can be landed and left without undue risk, the following instructions will apply:

a. You will land a party under the command of such person as you may appoint. Such party shall include the director, the physicist, and one of the surgeons, and such other persons as you may consider desirable; but no person is to be left without his consent in writing, which you will be careful to obtain and preserve.

b. You will give every practicable assistance in establishing on land this party, which you will supply with all available requisites, including a dwelling hut, an observer's hut, three years' provisions, stores, fuel, sledges, and dogs.

c. No landing party is to be established on any other part of the coast than that between Cape Johnson and Cape Crozier, as it is above all things essential that in case of accident the approximate position of the party should. be known.

d. Before it is so late as to endanger the freedom of your ship, you will proceed north of the pack and carry out magnetic observations with sounding and dredging over as many degrees of longitude (and as far south) as possible, so long as the season and your coal permit, and then return to your base station, whence you will telegraph your arrival and await further instructions.

20. You are to do your best to let us have and to leave where you can state

ments of your intentions with regard to the places where you will deposit records, and the course you will adopt, as well as particulars of your arrangements for the possible need of retreat, so that in case of accident to the ship or detention we shall be able to use our best endeavors to carry out your wishes in this respect.

21. In an enterprise of this nature much must be left to the discretion and judgment of the commanding officer, and we fully confide in your combined energy and prudence for the successful issue of a voyage which will command the attention of all persons interested in navigation and science throughout the civilized world. At the same time, we desire you constantly to bear in mind our anxiety for the health, comfort, and safety of all entrusted to your care.

22. While employed on this service you are to take every opportunity of acquainting us with your progress and your requirements.

23. In the unfortunate event of any fatal accident happening to yourself or of your inability, from sickness or any other cause, to carry out these instructions, the command of the ship and of the expedition will devolve on Lieutenant Armitage, who is hereby directed to assume command and to execute such part of these instructions as have not been already carried out at the time of his assuming command. In the event of a similar accident to Lieutenant Armitage, the command is to devolve on the executive officer next in seniority on the articles, and so on in succession.

24. All collections and all logs (except the official log), journals, charts, drawings, photographs, observations, and scientific data will be the joint property of the two societies, to be disposed of as may be decided by them. Before

the final return of the expedition you are to demand from the naval staff all such data, which are to be sealed up and delivered to the two presidents or dealt

with as they may direct. The director of the civilian scientific staff will be similarly responsible for the journals, collections, etc., of the officers under his control. You and the other members of the expedition will not be at liberty without our consent to make any communication to the press on matters relating to the affairs of the expedition, nor to publish independent narratives until six months after the issue of the official narrative. All communications are to be made to us, addressed to the care of the secretary of the National Antarctic expedition, London.

25. The Discovery is not one of His Majesty's ships, but is registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, and is governed by it. Copies of this act will be supplied to you. You will see that the officers and crew sign the ship's articles as required by the act. The scientific staff will not sign articles, but are to be treated as cabin passengers. You must be careful not to take more than 12 persons as passengers.

26. The vessel has been covered by insurance, and, in the event of her sustaining any damage during the voyage, to recover the claim from the underwriters it will be necessary for you to call in the services of Lloyd's agent, or, in his absence, an independent surveyor, at the first port of call, in order that the damage may be surveyed before repairs. are effected. His survey report, together with the accounts for repairs and supporting vouchers, should be sent to us by first mail, together with a certified extract from the official log reporting the casualty.

In the event of damage occurring after you have left civilized regions precise particulars should be entered in the log, and the damage should be surveyed and repaired as soon as you return to a port where Lloyd's agent or other surveyor is available.

27. The Discovery is the first ship that has ever been built expressly for scien

tific purposes in these kingdoms. It is an honor to receive the command of her; but we are impressed with the difficulty of the enterprise which has been entrusted to you and with the serious character of your responsibilities. The expedition is an undertaking of national importance, and science cannot fail to benefit from the efforts of those engaged in it. You may rely upon our support on all occasions, and we feel assured that all on board the Discovery will do their utmost to further the objects of the expedition.


1. The Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society have approved your appointment as director of the civilian scientific staff of their Antarctic expedition.

2. A copy of the instructions to the commander of the expedition accompanies these instructions, which are supplemental to them. You will see from the instructions to the commander what the objects of the expedition are, and your position relatively to them.

3. You will direct the scientific work of the gentlemen who have been appointed to assist you.

4. The names of the gentlemen associated with you are as follows: (1) Mr. Hodgson, biologist; (2) Mr. Shackleton, physicist. The services of the two medical officers will be at your disposal for scientific work when not engaged on the work of their own department, namely, Dr. Koettlitz, botanist, and Dr. Wilson, zoologist.

5. You will note that the commander of the expedition has been instructed to communicate freely with you on all matters connected with the scientific objects of the expedition, and, as far as possible, to meet your views and wishes in connection with them. The societies feel assured that you will coöperate and

act in concert with him, with a view, as far as possible, to secure the success of an enterprise which it is hoped will be attended with important results in the various branches of science which it is intended to investigate.

6. All collections, logs, journals, charts, drawings, photographs, observations, and scientific data will be the joint property of the two societies, to be disposed of as may be decided by them. Before the final return of the expedition you are to demand from the staff under your control all such data, which are to be sealed up and delivered to the two presidents or dealt with as they may direct. On the return of the expedition you will be expected to superintend the distribution of specimens to specialists approved of by the two councils or their representatives and to edit the resulting reports. You will also be expected to contribute a report on the scientific results of the expedition for the official narrative. As it may be desirable during the progress of the voyage that some new scientific discovery should be at once made known in the interest of science, you will in such a case inform us of it by the earliest opportunity.

7. You and the other members of the expedition will not be at liberty, without our consent, to make any communi cation to the press on matters relating in any way to the affairs of the expedition, nor to publish independent narratives until six months after the issue of the official narrative. All communications are to be made to us, addressed to the care of the secretary of the National Antarctic expedition, London.

8. Should any vacancies in the scientific staff occur after the expedition has sailed from England, you may, with the concurrence of the commander, make such arrangements as you think desirable to fill the same, should no one have been appointed from England.

9. You and the members of the scien

tific staff will be cabin passengers, joining the expedition at your own risk, and neither the owners nor the captain are to be responsible for any accident or misfortune which may happen to you.

'You will obtain from each member a letter to this effect.

The instructions are signed by the presidents of the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society.



HE city population of the United States during the ten years ending with the last census increased by nearly 37 per cent, in actual numbers 7,642,817, while the increase in the total population of the country during the same period was not quite 21 per cent.

In 1900 there were 160 cities, 161 including Honolulu, having a population of over 25,000. Of this number nineteen cities contained 200,000 inhabitants or more, nineteen cities had between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants, forty cities had between 50,000 and 100,000, and eighty-three had between 25,000 and 50,000. A recent bulletin of the Census Bureau, prepared under the direction of William C. Hunt, gives some interesting facts and figures relative to growth of the city population in the United States.

In 1890 there were 124 cities which had a population of 25,000 or more, but of these cities Brooklyn and Long Island City now form a part of New York city, showing a net gain of thirty-nine cities in 1900, as compared with 1890. Of the 124 cities in 1890, sixteen had 200,000 inhabitants or more, twelve had between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants, thirty had between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, and sixty-six had between 25,000 and 50,000.

In 1880 there were but twenty cities which contained more than 100,000 inhabitants, but in 1890 this number had increased to twenty-eight, and in 1900 to thirty-eight.

In 1900 there were seventy-eight cities of 50,000 inhabitants or more, as compared with fifty-eight in 1890 and thirtyfive in 1880.

The nineteen cities of the first class comprise New York, which, with more than 3,000,000 inhabitants, properly stands by itself; two cities, Chicago and Philadelphia, each of which has a population in excess of a million; three cities, St. Louis, Boston, and Baltimore, which have a population of half a million each; five cities, Cleveland, Buffalo, San Francisco, Cincinnati, and Pittsburg, which have a population of between 300,000 and 400,000 each, and eight cities, New Orleans, Detroit, Milwaukee, Washington, Newark, Jersey City, Louisville, and Minneapolis, which have a population of between 200,000 and 300,000 each.

The following-named States and Territories in 1900 do not contain any city with a population of 25,000 or more: Arizona, Idaho, Indian Territory, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.

Of the whole number of cities having 25,000 inhabitants or more in 1900, 70 are found in the North Atlantic division, 49 in the north central division, 18 in the south central division, 12 in the western division, II in the South Atlantic division, and I in Hawaii. Massachusetts has the largest number of such cities, namely, 20, and is followed by Pennsylvania with 18 and New York with 12. The most significant growth of cities

*Census Bulletin No. 70.

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