Page images
PDF
EPUB

part of them were drowned. They had direction of Heinrich Harti, a professor set foot upon a huge slumbering whale, at the Vienna University. Professor which had subsequently waked up when Harti was summoned to Athens last the first incursions had been made on autumn to inspect and take charge of his body by the newly arrived occupants. the topographical bureau which he

“This is a fable, but I fear it may founded some years ago. It is feared become history when it is applied to the that the cadastral survey by communimistaken calculations of the European ties which has been ordered will not be powers as to the occupation of China.'' successful, as the people object to the

Thus Cesare Lombroso in a recent con- demarkation of boundaries. Professor tribution to The Evening Star (Wash- Harti, however, hopes to be able to ington, D. C.) describes the Chinese make a general survey of sufficient acproblem. He believes that the Chinese

curacy to make a map of the whole are a different, not an inferior, race; that kingdom on a uniform system. they are now lazily dormant, but will soon be exasperated by European op- Explorations in Alaska. — The U. S. pression and excited to fearful rebellion Geological Survey will send this sumthat will wreck everything foreign in the mer three important expeditions for exempire. He agrees with M. De Bloche, ploratory work in Alaska. The first, the famous Russian advocate of interna- under W. J. Peters, will start from tional arbitration and the inspirer of the Bergman, nearly 1,000 miles northwest Peace Conference, that there is a still of Sitka, and proceed to the Arctic greater peril, namely, that when the Ocean. The party hopes to advance Chinese have been badgered and har- eastward as far as the British boundary, assed beyond even Chinese patience, as and then will turn westward again and a last resource they will throw them- proceed toward Point Barrow. The selves into the arms of Japan. Such an second party, led by W. C. Mendenhall, alliance would menace the rest of the the geologist, will work around Kotzeworld, for Japan loves Europeans only bue Sound. The third party, led by Mr. so long as she can learn from them. Gerdine, will continue previous explo

rations in the region of the Copper River.

The War Department sends no expeThe Manchurian Railway the Russian dition to Alaska, as its resources are Government hopes to complete during fully occupied by Cuba, Porto Rico, and the current month, states the American the Philippines. consul at Moscow. Working trains are already running between Onon, Harbin, The Biological Survey of the DepartVladivostok, and Port Arthur. Thus ment of Agriculture will send this sumin a few weeks trains will run from St. mer parties to the region of Athabasca Petersburg to Port Arthur with only Lake and the Great Slave Lake to deone small break—the few miles around termine the zones of distribution of the Lake Baikal, where heavy boats ferry fauna of that country. Mr. Preble, who the cars across the lake.

A map show- so successfully led the party from the ing the route of the Manchurian Rail- Survey to the Hudson Bay country last way was published in No. 8, vol. xi of year, has charge of the work. Dr. C. this Magazine.

Hart Merriam, the chief of the Survey,

continues his study of the zones of disThe Survey of Greece, which has been tribution of the fauna of California, interrupted since the Greco-Turkish war, The new director of the Geological is to be resumed this spring under the Survey of Canada is Dr. Robert Bell, formerly the senior member of the staff penses will be met by the Cuban govof the Survey. Dr. Bell, since he joined ernment. the Survey, in 1857, has made surveys, both topographical and geological, in The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey almost every section of Canada.

has five parties in Porto Rico charting Three expert geologists of the U. S. the coast of the island. This work has Geological Survey are now engaged in now been in progress for two years, and making an examination into the min- great advance has been made in obtaineral resources of Cuba. The work is ing accurate charts of the coastline. very important, and may result in much Several local harbor charts of the Haeconomic value to the island. It was waiian Islands are being published by undertaken at the suggestion of Gov- the Survey, the result of surveys made ernor-General Wood, and all of the ex- in 1899 and 1900.

GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE

Where Black Rules White: A Journey the narrative smacks of the soil through

Across and About Haiti. By Hes- out. The author pays tribute to Tousketh Prichard. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. saint L'Ouverture as the one noble [i-xi +]1–288. New York: Chas. figure in Haytian history, but shows Scribner's Sons, 1900.

that the bloodthirsty Dessalines is the Made attractive by a tasty symbolic local hero ; he summarizes the history binding, clear type, thick and large

of black rule as one of steady lapse from paper, fair half-tone reproductions of civilization to barbarism if not to savphotographs, and excellent press-work, agery, and is correspondingly pessimistic this book is a convenient outline of its as to the future of the island; he ascribes writer's knowledge concerning one of the progressive degradation partly to the the most interesting portions of the west- incompetence of the masses, partly to ern hemisphere—the only considerable

the corruption of the classes, but mainly portion which has ever reverted from to the persistence of the Vaudoux cult Caucasian rule to the dominion of an with its depressing beliefs and ghastly alien race. The fifteen brief chapters ceremonies running down to serpentare based mainly on the observations of worship and human sacrifice. The book a single visit ; although interesting his- is material for knowledge of Haititorical details are interwoven here and

material rather meager and tenuous, there, there is nothing in profession or perhaps, but direct, useful, and happily performance to indicate that the author

dressed.

W' J M. was inspired by the instincts of the historian, and much to indicate that he was

China. By James Harrison Wilson. not geographer or geologist, naturalist

Third edition. With map. or artist, ethnologist or sociologist, econ- xxxvii + 1-422. New York : D. Aponist, or even serious student-but just pleton & Co.

1901. a tourist bent on writing a book. So For many years General Wilson's the chapters are light if not frothy, the work on China has been a standard expressions youthful if not flippant ; yet authority.

authority. The third edition includes the vocabulary is remarkably rich and an account of the Boxer War and of the word-painting singularly vivid, and the diplomatic conferences of last fall.

8vo, PP.

General Wilson believes that Japan of the Morocco Times, and is the author will be forced to follow the lead of the of a number of reliable books relating three great European powers-France, to the Moorish Empire—“The Moors, Germany, and Russia-in all Chinese “The Moorish Empire," etc. The questions. Russia occupies an impreg- present volume deals more especially nable position, and will dictate her policy with the geographic features and the to France, and thus indirectly to Ger- history of the exploration of Morocco. many. A few hundred years from now, There are good chapters on the PhysGeneral Wilson believes that “univer- ical Features, Mineral Resources, Vegesal empire will have its nucleus and table Products, and Animal Life. The seat” in China, as her “coal measures book is timely, as “the land of the and iron deposits are commonly believed Moors" will probably be the center of to be the most extensive and the most much diplomatic warfare during the enduring in the world.” That it will next decade. The apparent alliance be an empire of white men and not of between Italy and France undoubtedly yellow men is the author's unhesitating has some bearing upon the ultimate conviction.

fate of the country. The author be

lieves that “France is the normal heir The Land of the Moors. By Budgett to Morocco whenever the present em

Meakin. Illustrated. 8vo, pp. 464. pire breaks up," and thinks that EngNew York: The Macmillan Co., 1901.

land should make up her mind to the Mr. Meakin was for some years editor inevitable fact.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL

GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

Meetings.

Announcements. April 12, 1901.—The annual recep- The President announced at the meettion of the Society was held in the par. ing April 19 that the plans for the buildlors of the Arlington Hotel. Mr. Paul ing which is to be the headquarters of Du Chaillu was the guest of honor of the Society are advancing, and that it is the Society, and gave some interesting hoped in a few weeks active work will reminiscences of his life. The official, be commenced. diplomatic, and social life of the Capital THE ANNUAL EXCURSION AND FIELD were the guests of the Society during MEETING of the Society will be held at the evening.

Brandywine, Del., Saturday, May 18. April 19, 1901.-President Graham As the fiscal year of the Society will Bell in the chair. The new by-laws for hereafter begin the first of January inthe Society, submitted and recommended stead of the first of June, the Board of by the Board of Managers, after a full Managers have voted to fix the dues of discussion were unanimously adopted. members for the seven months which The by-laws and the reasons for their intervene between the end of the presadoption were published at length in the ent fiscal year, May 31, 1901, and the April number of this Magazine (pp. beginning of the next fiscal year, Jan167-'8).

uary 1, 1902, at $1.

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

CHINA:

HER HISTORY AND DEVELOP

MENT

By John BARRETT, FORMERLY MINISTER TO SIAM

M

YTHOLOGY plays an impor- it cooked the raw food of the soil for

tant part in the ancient history the better support of their protégés who

of China, as it does in that of the were populating the valleys and plains older European nations. Going back to and mountains they had created. There the fabulous times of 500,000 to 1,000,000 are no more interesting myths in the years, it first begins to tell a story of poetry and song of the ancient Greeks some truth about thirty-three centu- and Romans than can be found in the ries before Christ. Fuh-hi, who reigned fanciful narratives of the Chinese ro2900 B. C., is commonly regarded as the mancers; and, if we investigate carefirst real man whose name stands out in fully the relations of China in the rethe long dim line of ancient kings. Be- mote past to western Asia, we may be fore him as a human monarch were even convinced that the legendary lore ages of supernatural giants. There was of the former antedates the latter in its Pwan-ku, who formed cosmos from inspiration and first rehearsal to charmed chaos. For 18,000 years he labored and credulous ears. chiseling into definite form the rude, shapeless earth. He was followed by EIGHT GREAT EMPERORS three sovereigns who, during another period of one hundred and eighty cen- Fuh-hi, the first landmark of history, turies, prepared the earth for ordinary and his seven successors held sway for life. Under the suggestive and appro- nearly eight hundred years, an average priate names of the Celestial, Terrestrial, of a century each. The atmosphere of and Human, their deeds are sung in myth still remains here, unless in the Chinese legends. In these tales we are repeated songs of their achievements told how they evolved the relations of some lesser lights of their dynasty are the sexes, government, and order, and forgotten. From the number stands out taught men to eat, drink, and sleep. Hwangti, “the founder of China,” as They enticed fire from heaven, and with he is often portrayed, although the same

a

honor is given to many others and is overshadowed by the renown of that claimed by more. Hwangti's capital galaxy of Chinese heroes, the Emperors was in Honan, and he is described as Yao, Shun, and Yu, whom Confucius extending the empire from Pechili to and Mencius, China'stwo greatest sages, the Yangtze, while his son even extended have made immortal. Yao and Shun the boundaries into Manchuria on the reigned approximately B. C. 2350–2200, north and Tonkin on the south.

and their names and deeds are known He is given the credit of originating to every Chinese boy and girl. The the famous "Cycle of Cathay," the ar- child of mandarin or coolie will glibly bitrary period of sixty years, in honor describe their greatness, as the son of of the sixty-first year of his reign ; and millionaire or pauper in America will he established a regular calendar. But tell you about Washington or Lincoln. a greater deed was the regulation of It is well to note in this connection weights and measures according to the that the characters which are admired decimal system. He carried the same and remembered in China today as in principle into the government of his the past are generally men of highest kingdom, making ten towns one dis- attainments and lofty motives. The trict, ten districts one department, ten sterner records of history tell of evil as departments one province, and ten prov- well as good men, but the popular narinces one empire. He built highways ratives, songs, and poems, together with upon land, and boats to navigate the the deep philosophic works of China's rivers, and generally was a wise and wise men, give little consideration to progressive monarch.

other than the great and good. Thus He was following in the footsteps of has there been a continuous and notable Fuh-hi, who instituted the laws of mar- influence for the development and betriage and methods of agriculture and terment of the Chinese peoples from the fishing.

earliest times, which has had a marked The lyre and lute were invented by effect upon the life of the empire him to make his people cheerful and through its ups and downs of the past content. Chinese characters were de- centuries. It elevates the Chinese far vised and family names were then first above and beyond any position as barknown.

barians. It demonstrates the existence While all these stories of providing of a powerful civilization more years the necessities and of adapting the real- before the birth of Jesus of Nazaretli ities of life suggest a degree of truth, than have elapsed since that chief event there is woven , in with them a large in all history startled and amazed the measure of romance that colors their historical value. Fuh-hi attributed all After Yao and Shun came the mighty his successes and glorious achievements Yu, during whose reign were two events to the dragon-horse that came out of that will never allow it to sink into enthe Yellow River bearing a scroll on its tire oblivion. The first was the terrible back, and possibly in this fable we have inundation of the greater part of the the crystallization in legendary history then inhabited empire by China's sorof the dragon conception, which plays row, the Yellow River. The second so important a part in contemporary was the discovery of the manufacture of Chinese romance and reality — which wine. Which has been the worst for adorns their flags and clothing, is the mankind might be difficult to determine! central figure of their art, and is remem- Yu, after he had enjoyed his first exbered in their prayers.

perience with the beverage, sagely reBut the glory of Fuh-hi and Hwangti marked, “The days will come when

pagan world.

« PreviousContinue »