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Scraggy; isletin Salisbury Sound, south

eastern Alaska (not Samoilof). Shoals; point, the southeastern point of Kruzof Island, Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not First, Low, Nizmennia, Otmeloi, Outer Point of Shoals, nor White's).

of German capital is invested there in real estate, industrial enterprises, and in banking houses. German farms and plantations cover more than 742,000 acres, on which are planted 20,000,000 coffee trees. Much of the trade of Central America goes abroad instead of

Smoke; creek south of Buffalo, Erie coming to the United States, owing to County, Pa. (not Smokes).

South Gabouri; creek, Ste. Genevieve
County, Missouri (not South Fork
Gabor nor South Gabori).
Turner; island between Big Koniuji and
Nagai Islands, Shumagin group,
Alaska (not Stiernfeld).
Wapsipinicon; river in eastern Iowa
(not Wabes-pinicon Wapsie nor
Wapsiepinnecon).

West Point; city, militia district, and post-office, Troup County, Georgia (not Westpoint).

West Point; district, post-office, and town, King William County, Virginia (not Westpoint). Wosnesenski; island off south shore of Alaska Peninsula and west of Unga Island, Shumagin group, Alaska (not Crested, Peregrebnoi, Unatkuyuk, Vozoychenski, Vossnesensky, nor Wossnessenski). Yucaipe; creek and valley, San Bernardino County, California (not Yucaipa).

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the fact that American houses do not employ in their establishments persons speaking Spanish, and refuse to give credit.

A

A SUBMARINE ARCTIC BOAT

UNIQUE submarine boat is now being built at Wilhelmshaven, Germany, designed not for war, but for the search for the North Pole. Herr Anschütz-Kämpfe, of Munich, the inventor, recently described his plans at a meeting of the Vienna Geographical Society.

The boat will be capable of descending to a depth of 160 feet, and of swimming at that distance from the surface, and can remain fifteen hours under water. The vessel is in the form of an ellipsoid of rotation, the major axis being 70 feet and the breadth 20 feet. Its cubical contents will allow sufficient air for five men for fifteen 'hours, the carbonic acid gas being removed by combination with caustic soda. The boat is kept from rising by vertical screws of five-horse power, and is propelled by horizontal screws of forty-horse power. A petroleum motor supplies the necessary power.

When ready for the start the boat will be towed to the edge of the ice near Spitzbergen, about 600 miles from the Pole. The inventor's argument for the rest of the journey is as follows: The polar ice, on the average, reaches to a depth of 16 to 20 feet, but when packed it may reach to a depth of 80 feet (land ice in the form of icebergs, which extend several hundred feet below water, may, he thinks, be disregarded in this

region). The extent of ice-fields rarely exceeds three miles, and as the vessel can make three miles an hour under water and can remain fifteen hours, he believes there will be no difficulty in swimming from opening to opening of the ice-fields. The possibility of meeting reefs of rock rising toward the surface or of sand banks he considers so slight as to be disregarded.

If after proceeding six hours under water the vessel finds no opening it will rise to the ice and search for a thin spot, and if blasting cannot effect an outlet there will be plenty of time to return to the last opening.

WORK IN THE ARCTICS IN 1901

NOT

OT since the years of the Franklin search expeditions has there been such activity directed toward the north and south polar regions as during the present year. Not less than eight expeditions are now in the far north or are planning for active work in Greenland, Spitzbergen, and Franz Josef Land, and of these, five Baldwin, Peary, Sverdrup, Bernier, and Anschütz-Kämpfe — are aiming for the North Pole.

Peary passed his third consecutive winter in the vicinity of Smith Sound, and is now probably sledding toward the Pole. In July the Peary Arctic Club of Brooklyn will dispatch for the third time a relief ship to carry him supplies and to bring him back if he this year reaches his goal. If unsuccessful he remains another year. Peary is not yet informed that the Duke of Abruzzi last year eclipsed Nansen's record. Mrs. Peary, with her little daughter, went north in the Peary relief ship of 1900, hoping to join her husband.

Sverdrup's plans for this summer are a mystery, as they were in 1900. He is probably pegging away in northeastern Greenland. He also has passed his third consecutive winter in the far north, but no vessel has taken him supplies in

the meantime, and probably he will be obliged to return in September.

Baldwin inaugurates the most important arctic expedition of the year. The primary object of the Baldwin-Zeigler party is avowedly to get to the Pole. Scientific work is secondary, but the equipment of the party is so complete that much valuable data will undoubtedly be obtained. Prof. J. Howard Gore, the well-known physicist of Columbian University, accompanies Mr. Baldwin as far as Franz Josef Land, where he will spend the summer in work, and return on the second ship, the Fridtjof. The names of the scientific men who will remain permanently with the party have not yet been announced.

Mr. Baldwin intends to make some interesting experiments in the matter of food. He is taking a quantity of desiccated potatoes; also quantities of “fruit bricks," with which the Department of Agriculture has experimented so successfully. Bushels of strawberries, raspberries, etc., can thus be compressed into solid form and retain their freshness until used months later. Four hundred picked Siberian dogs will be taken, which is four times as many as the Duke of Abruzzi had with him and twelve times the number Nansen took. The bottoms of the kyaks and sled-runners, which were constructed in Norway, are lined with German silver, which Mr. Baldwin believes will afford the best protection against water and ice.

The Amerika and Fridtjof will steam north together as far as the ice permits, when the stores of the Fridtjof will be transferred to the Amerika and to a convenient point on Franz Josef Land, and the smaller ship returns to Tromsö.

A Russian Party, on a vessel of the type of the ice-breaking Ermak, will push northward as far as the powerful vessel can crush its way. A large staff of scientists will conduct observations during the trip, as the main purpose of the expedition is scientific. The Ermak,

with boilers under half pressure, can force her way through polar ice of 12 to 14 feet thickness at a rate of nearly 3 knots an hour. This type of vessel may prove an important factor in ultimately reaching the pole.

Captain Bernier, of Quebec, has adopted essentially the plan Nansen has urged of approaching the Pole from Bering Sea, between 165 and 170 degrees east longitude, and then drifting toward the Pole. Captain Bernier does not expect to set out this year, but is making arrangements for an expedition to start in

1902.

The widely circulated statement that the Duke of Abruzzi would send a special vessel northward in July to search for the three members of his party who were lost in Franz Josef Land in March, 1900, is unfounded. The whaling steamer Capella, which every summer goes northward, toward the end of July will stop incidentally at Franz Josef Land to see if it can find traces of the missing men, but the Italian prince has no connection with the plan.

Walter Wellman has purchased a whaling steamer in which he hopes soon to lead a third arctic expedition. The party may start this year or wait till the summer of 1902.

The project of Herr Anschutz-Kampfe of attaining the North Pole by means of a submarine boat has been alluded to on page 201.

WORK IN THE ANTARCTICS

PLAN

LANS are under way for five expeditions to southern regions, two of which the English and the Germanset out in July, in costly ships specially constructed for the purpose.

The Discovery, the first ship ever constructed in England for purely exploratory work, was recently launched on the Firth of Tay. The Discovery, which is the vessel of the English Antarctic Expedition, is the sixth of her name in

the annals of British exploration. The first Discovery carried Hudson to Hudson Bay in 1610, on the ill-fated voyage when his crew mutinied and abandoned him in a tiny boat to perish on the great bay which he had discovered. The second of the name one hundred years later made a voyage to Hudson Bay. The third was the second ship in Cook's third voyage, in which he discovered the Hawaiian Islands, only to be murdered there a few months later. In the fourth Vancouver explored the Gulf of Georgia and the shores of the island which bears his name-1791-'95, and the fifth was the second ship of the Arctic expedition of Sir George Nares.

The present Discovery is as staunchly built as experience and science can make her. She is a combined sailing and steam vessel, with engines of 450-horse power, and will be able to steam about eight knots an hour. At the water line she is 170 feet in length, with an extreme breadth of 33 feet; her mean draft is 16 feet and her displacement

1,750 tons.

Captain Scott will have under him four other officers, two of them belonging to the navy and two to the Royal Naval Reserve. The second in command will be Lieutenant Armitage, whose three years' experience in Franz Josef Land with Jackson should be of immense service, especially if he is placed in command of a land party. There will be three civilian scientific specialists and two medical officers, both of them qualified to undertake certain departments of scientific work. petty officers and crew will number about 25, so that the complete complement of the Discovery is not likely to exceed 40. There will be some 20 sledges and 20 dogs, some of the sledges being light enough to be easily drawn by men.

The

The Gauss, for the German Antarctic Expedition (named after the Göttingen. professor who did so much to stimulate

Antarctic research), was launched at Kiel early in April. The German ship, like the Discovery, is built mainly of wood, the only material which is elastic and strong enough to resist ice pressure and the boisterous seas of the south polar regions. She is some twenty feet shorter than the English vessel, but is broader, and her displacement is 300 tons less. The crew will consist, in addition to Dr. von Drygalski, of four scientific assistants, a captain, a first officer, two mates, an engineer, ten seamen, six assistant engineers and stokers, a cook, and a steward-28 in all. Each of the officers has a cabin to himself, while the crew have four large rooms. All the dwelling-rooms will be heated by steam, and it is calculated that a temperature of 50° Fahr. will be maintained within when that outside is as low as 22°. Electric light will be provided throughout practically the whole ship, and an acetylene apparatus may possibly also be installed. Laboratories and other special arrangements are provided for scientific work, while, as in the British ship, dredging and sounding apparatus have been provided. Dr. von Drygalski is planning to take 50 dogs. He, as well as the English captain, has included a balloon in the equipment.

A map showing the routes of the English and German expeditions was published in this Magazine, in No. 8, vol. x. The English expect to establish a station on Cape Adare, Victoria Land, which will be the base of their land parties, while the Germans plan to make their base on some point in Wilkes Land. Each vessel will carry sufficient stores for 3 years, as it is probable that each party will remain that time within the Antarctic Circle.

The Swedish Antarctic Expedition, under Dr. Otto Nordenskjold, has engaged the Antarctic, the vessel with which Dr. Nathorst made his notable explorations on the east coast of Greenland in 1899. This party may possibly

leave in September, but the chances are that they will not set out until 1902.

Plans for the Scottish Antarctic Expedition are progressing. This expedition will probably not set out until the year 1902.

The Duke of Abruzzi is organizing a south polar expedition to start in June, 1902. He is enthusiastically supported by all Italians.

AN AMERICAN FLOATING EXPOSI

TH

TION

HE suggestion for a floating exposition made by the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department in the February number of this magazine has aroused much discussion not only throughout the United States, but in other parts of the world. Mr. Austin has received letters from various countries in Europe asking about the proposed enterprise, and many inquiries from manufacturers and merchants in the United States desiring to participate in an undertaking of this character.

This suggestion of Mr. Austin has been followed by the announcement that a floating exhibition, to visit the cities bordering upon the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, has been organized at Buffalo, and will leave in the autumn of the present year for that field. A number of other enterprises of this character have also been suggested.

The Bureau of Statistics has received the following statement, published in the Moniteur Officiel du Commerce (Paris, March 28, 1900), regarding a floating exposition recently organized in Hamburg, Germany :

46

The earliest exhibition of this kind was organized about two years ago, and it must be said that the results of the enterprise were in excess of the most sanguine expectations: Total value of transactions, 22,000,000 marks ($5,236,000), at a cost of about 800,000 marks, or

about $190,400. The details of opera

POPULATIONS OF

AUSTRIA-HUN

GARY, DENMARK, AND SWITZERLAND

HE figures for the census of Aus

1900, show an increase for the past ten years of about 10 per cent, a more rapid growth than the dual kingdom has experienced for several decades. The population is about 46,890,000, which makes her the seventh country in the world in population. Those outnumbering her are China, the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, France, and the German Empire. Japan has a million or two less.

The Danish census was taken February, 1901, and shows an increase during the last eleven years of 121⁄2 per cent, which is greater than in any recent decade. This increase is mainly due to the diminishing number of emigrants and to the decrease in the death rate, brought about by the efforts of the government to prevent the spread of consumption. As in the other countries of Europe, the people are moving into the towns. The towns show an increase of 28 per cent, while the country districts show an increase of only 4 per cent. The present population of Denmark is 2,447,441.

The census of Switzerland, taken December 1, 1900, gives the population of the republic as 3,312,551, an increase of 13.5 per cent during the twelve years since the preceding enumeration.

THE CONQUEST OF CHINA

Ι

tion are stated by the correspondent as follows:

"The syndicate addresses to manufacturing and commercial firms circulars

explaining the purpose of the exhibition Hungary, taken in December,

and the terms of participation. As soon as the number of would-be participants is large enough to permit the loading of a vessel, the exhibitors send their samples to the port of departure. These samples are then mounted and exhibited on board the vessel, especially fitted for this purpose.

"By each exhibit there is an advertisement giving prices and terms of sale. Sales agents representing either the syndicate or the individual exhibitors furnish all desired information to the visitors at the various ports where the vessel stops. These sales agents are chosen from among the young men, as well as the young women, graduated from commercial schools and speaking at least two languages. Interpreters are hired on the spot in each country of a new language. The sales agents, besides seeing visitors aboard the ship, visit also with their samples the towns in the interior of the country. In such manner the cost of transportation is greatly reduced.

"The exhibitors pay to the syndicate a commission, to be deducted from the realized sales and in proportion to the value of the product. In addition to this commission, the participants pay a proportionate share of the cost of chartering and loading the vessel and the general expenditure of the undertaking, such as the hire of clerks, interpreters, etc.'

"The report concludes with the expression of the hope that French com

mercial circles would appreciate this "KNOW not in what fable I have

novel idea and try to achieve even more splendid results."

Announcement of an Austro-Hungarian floating exposition to leave Trieste this month for a voyage around the world was made in the preceding number of this Magazine.

read about some fishermen who had disembarked upon an unknown island and had already begun to set up their tents and to sow their grain, feeling great pride in their unexpected acquisition, when, all at once, they found themselves hurled into the water-they and their implements-so that the greater

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