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covery, for many millions appear to be under conditions which would be proin sight awaiting the pan or rocker to hibitory on the coast. separate the golden sand.

golden sand. The harvest of gold from Cape Nome during the

SCENERY summer of 1900 was $6,000,000 and the total product of the Territory from There is one other asset of the Terriplacers in 1899 was $1,200,000.

tory not yet enumerated-imponderable But after the enumeration of these and difficult to appraise, yet one of the latent resources of the Territory few are chief assets of Alaska, if not the greatleft to describe. Alaska is not a country est. This is the scenery.

There are for agriculture, nor for home-making. glaciers, mountains, and fiords elseIt has paid us its purchase price many where, but nowhere else on earth is times over, and in the future will pour there such abundance and magnificence much wealth into our laps, but it will of mountain, fiord, and glacier scenery. never pay, as other accessions to our For thousands of miles the coast is a territory have paid, in making homes continuous panorama. For the one Yofor our people. At present few people semite of California Alaska has hungo to Alaska to live; they go there dreds. The mountains and glaciers of merely to stay until they have made the Cascade Range are duplicated and a their stake.

thousand-fold exceeded in Alaska. The Farming as a business is impossible Alaska coast is to become the show-place under the climatic conditions prevalent of the earth, and pilgrims, not only from on the coast. It is granted at once that the United States, but from far beyond it is possible to mature certain hardy the seas, will throng in endless procescrops in favorable seasons, but this is sion to see it. Its grandeur is more valquite a different thing from raising crops uable than the gold or the fish or the in competition with California and the timber, for it will never be exhausted. Willamette Valley, even when the cost This value, measured by direct returns of freight is added. It must be done at in money received from tourists, will be a profit or not at all. It is of no avail enormous; measured by health and to raise potatoes when they can be pleasure, it will be incalculable. brought from Portland and sold for less There is one word of advice and cauthan the cost of production in Alaska. tion to be given those intending to visit If there is any part of the Territory in Alaska for pleasure, for sight-seeing. which farming can be successfully car- If you are old, go by all means ; but if ried on, it is the interior, which has a you are young, stay away until you much more favorable summer climate

The scenery of Alaska is than the coast ; but even there success so much grander than anything else of would be doubtful. However, as the the kind in the world that, once beheld, higher rate of freight to the interior all other scenery becomes flat and inwill have the effect of a protective tariff sipid. It is not well to dull one's caon home products, it may be possible to pacity for such enjoyment by seeing the raise grain and vegetables at a profit finest first.

grow older.

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a

N the death of Dr. George M. Daw- sion in 1873. Two years later he joined

son the Dominion of Canada has the Geological Survey of Canada, and

sustained a great loss in the do- for nine years was engaged in the exmains of geographic science and of ploration of British Columbia, the Yuaffairs, for Dr. Dawson was not only kon Valley, and the high plains of the one of her leading scientific men, but northwest. While his work was pritook an active part in her political marily geological, still we owe to him, matters.

more than to any other explorer, our Dawson was born at Pictou, Nova present knowledge of the northwestern Scotia, in 1849, his father being the part of North America. In 1883 he was

appointed assistant director of the Geological Survey, and in 1895 became its director, which position he held until his death, on March 2, 1901.

During his quarter century of active work many duties were imposed upon Mr. Dawson and many were the honors he received. In 1891 and 1892 he served on the Bering Sea Commission, and for his services received the order of Companion of St. Michael and St. George. In 1891 he received from the Royal Society of England, of which he was a fellow, the Bigsby medal for his researches in geology, and degrees were conferred upon him by Queens College and McGill University. In 1893 he was elected President of the Royal Society of Canada.

Dr. Dawson's work was mainly that of an explorer, and for that he had, in spite of his physical defect, wonderful ability and fitness. To draw broad and accurate generalizations from the slight data obtained by the explorer requires close observation,great breadth of vision,

and high reasoning powers, and in the George M. Dawson

selection of Dawson for this work the

Canadian authorities made no mistake. celebrated geologist, Sir William Daw

He has laid down with great accuracy son. After a thorough training at Mc

the leading geographic and geologic Gill University and at the Royal School

features of the Canadian Northwest, of Mines of London, he commenced his

and thus constructed a skeleton on long career of geographic and geologic which future work will supply the

details. explorations as geologist and botanist on the Northwest Boundary Commis

H. G.

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GEOGRAPHIC NOTES

T

ufme and of the Harriman publications The upon the map of Europe are

THI

ALASKA

page photogravures, and 200 insets

illustrate this splendid work. Messrs. HE narrative volume of the famous

Doubleday, Page & Co., of New York, Harriman Alaska expedition of

are the publishers for Mr. Harriman. two summers ago will appear during the present month. Through the courtesy ANDORRA AND SAN MARINO of Dr. C.

, HE two states the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE est is able to present in this number one the tiny Republics of Andorra, in the chapter from this remarkable work—The eastern Pyrenees, and of San Marino, in General Geography of Alaska, by Mr. northeastern Italy. Each owed its origHenry Gannett.

inal independence to its strong natural So rapid has been the exploration of position; then for centuries the shrewdthis vast territory during the past five ness of its inhabitants knew how to play years that few realize the extent of pres- off one enemy against another. In modent knowledge of the country. Mr. Gan- ern times its neighbors have seemed to nett, in his paper, gives the most com- feel a sort of chivalric sentiment for it prehensive statement of the general because it has taken care of itself so geographic features as developed by long. recent exploration that has yet been The Republic of Andorra has existed published.

since the eighth century. When the The narrative of the Harriman expe- Moslems invaded France from Spain in dition is the most trustworthy and at the eighth century that little territory the same time popular work on Alaska in the mountains was not conquered by which has ever been offered to the pub- them and has remained independent ever lic. Mr. John Burroughs opens with the since. It now enjoys the joint protecstory of the two months' travel of the tion of France and of the Spanish Bishop Harriman party. Mr. John Muir fol- of Urgel. Its extent is less than 175 lows with a chapter on the Glaciers.

Its hardly more than Then Mr. George Bird Grinnell de- 6,000 inhabitants are almost all miners scribes the Natives of the Alaskan Con- and farmers. It is governed by a reptinent—the Indians and Eskimo. Dr. resentative council of 24 persons, who Wni. H. Dall gives the History of the are chosen by the heads of families. Discovery and Exploration of Alaska. The Republic of San Marino, though Mr. Charles A. Keeler has a chapter on having a population of about 10,000, is the Birds of Alaska, Mr. B. E. Fernow only one-fifth as large in area, but is on the Forests, and then follows Mr. still more ancient. In fact, it is the Gannett's article on the General Geog- smallest and the oldest independent reraphy of Alaska. Dr. Merriam con- public on the globe. It is governed by tributes the concluding chapter on the a Great Council of 60 members and a Volcanoes of the Aleutian Archipelago. Minor Council of 12 members. It has The bird pictures by Mr. Louis Fuertes, an army of 938 men, and spends about the plant pictures by Mr. Walpole, and $10,000 annually on internal improvethe fiord scenes by Mr. Dellenbaugh ments. On June 28, 1897, San Marino form a notable feature of the volume. concluded a formal treaty of friendship Twenty colored plates, over 100 full- with Italy.

square miles.

GEOGRAPHIC NAMES

HE following decisions were made

Names, April 3, 1901: Aowa; creek, Dixon County, Nebraska

(not Aoway nor Ayoway). Apple; group of islands in northern

part of Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not Iabloshni, Middle, nor

Sredni). Basket; bay indenting the southeastern

shore of Chichagof Island, southeastern Alaska (not Kakagin nor

Kook). Bendel; island between Big Koniuji and

Nagai Islands, Shumagin group,

Alaska (not Morse). Bois d'Arc; creek, Ellis County, Texas. Bois d'Arc; creeks (two), Choctaw Na

tion, Indian Territory. Bois d'Arc; post-office, Greene County,

Missouri. Bois d'Arc; river in northern Texas. Bois d'Arc; township, Montgomery

County, Illinois. Broad; island near the junction of Hoo

niah Sound and Peril Strait, southeastern Alaska (not Crosswise nor

Poperetchni). Buncombe; creek, Chickasaw Nation,

Indian Territory (not Boncombe). Cacaway; island and point, Langford

Bay, Kent County, Maryland (not

Cacawa). Camp Coogan; bay in eastern part of

Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not Camp Cogan, Camp Kogan,

Kadiak, nor Nachlezmia). Cliffs; point, Chester River, Kent County,

Maryland (not Cliff City, Cliff's,

nor Starts). Comet; peak, Pinal County, Arizona

(not Camels nor Comets). Eyak; lake and native village at west

ern edge of the Copper River delta, Alaska (not Eyack, Eyuk, Ighiak,

Ikhiak, nor Odiak). Fryingpan; cove, Eastern Neck Island,

Kent County, Maryland (not Boxes nor Frying Pan).

Glenhaven; post-office, railroad station

and township, Grant County, Wis

consin (not Glen Haven). Hauani; creek, Chickasaw Nation, In

dian Territory (not Haiyona nor

Hiayona). Hound; island in northern part of

Keku Strait, southeastern Alaska

(not Round). Inner ; point on the southeastern shore

of Kruzof Island, Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not Rocky

nor Second). Koip ; peak and ridge on boundary be

tween Mono and Tuolumne Coun

ties, California (not Ko-it). Leechville; post-office and village, Beau

fort County, North Carolina (not

Leachville). Leevining ; cañon, creek, and peak,

Mono County, California (not Le

vining nor Vining). Luppatatong ; creek in Keyport, Mon

mouth County, New Jersey (not Lupatatong, Lupatcong, nor Lup

patcong). North Gabouri ; creek, Ste. Genevieve

County, Missouri (not North Gabor

nor North Gabori). Oraibi ; post-office and village, Navajo

County, Arizona (not Oraiba). Piute; peak and post-office, Kern County,

California (not Pah-ute, Pahute, nor

Paiute). Rockhall ; district No. 5, Kent County,

Maryland (not Edesville). Shoshone ;* river, tributary to the Big

Horn River, Big Horn County,

Wyoming (not Stinking Water). * The legislature of the State of Wyoming passed an act, which was approved February 14, 1901, as follows:

Be it enacted by the legislature of the State of Wyoming :

SECTION I. That the name of the streamı of water known on the map of the l'nited States as the Stinking Water River, situated in Big Horn County, Wyoming, and emptying into the Big Horn River, is hereby changed to the Shoshone River, and shall hereafter be designated and known as such.

SEC. 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage."

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