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covery, for many millions appear to be in sight awaiting the pan or rocker to separate the golden sand. The harvest of gold from Cape Nome during the summer of 1900 was $6,000,000 and the total product of the Territory from placers in 1899 was $1,200,000.
But after the enumeration of these latent resources of the Territory few are left to describe. Alaska is not a country for agriculture, nor for home-making. It has paid us its purchase price many times over, and in the future will pour much wealth into our laps, but it will never pay, as other accessions to our territory have paid, in making homes for our people. At present few people go to Alaska to live; they go there merely to stay until they have made their stake.
Farming as a business is impossible under the climatic conditions prevalent on the coast. It is granted at once that it is possible to mature certain hardy crops in favorable seasons, but this is quite a different thing from raising crops in competition with California and the Willamette Valley, even when the cost of freight is added. It must be done at a profit or not at all. It is of no avail to raise potatoes when they can be brought from Portland and sold for less than the cost of production in Alaska. If there is any part of the Territory in which farming can be successfully carried on, it is the interior, which has a much more favorable summer climate than the coast; but even there success would be doubtful. However, as the higher rate of freight to the interior will have the effect of a protective tariff on home products, it may be possible to raise grain and vegetables at a profit
under conditions which would be prohibitory on the coast.
There is one other asset of the Territory not yet enumerated-imponderable and difficult to appraise, yet one of the chief assets of Alaska, if not the greatest. This is the scenery. There are glaciers, mountains, and fiords elsewhere, but nowhere else on earth is there such abundance and magnificence of mountain, fiord, and glacier scenery. For thousands of miles the coast is a continuous panorama. For the one Yosemite of California Alaska has hundreds. The mountains and glaciers of the Cascade Range are duplicated and a thousand-fold exceeded in Alaska. The Alaska coast is to become the show-place of the earth, and pilgrims, not only from the United States, but from far beyond. the seas, will throng in endless procession to see it. Its grandeur is more valuable than the gold or the fish or the timber, for it will never be exhausted. This value, measured by direct returns in money received from tourists, will be enormous; measured by health and pleasure, it will be incalculable.
There is one word of advice and caution to be given those intending to visit Alaska for pleasure, for sight-seeing. If you are old, go by all means; but if you are young, stay away until you grow older. The scenery of Alaska is so much grander than anything else of the kind in the world that, once beheld, all other scenery becomes flat and insipid. It is not well to dull one's capacity for such enjoyment by seeing the finest first.
sion in 1873. Two years later he joined the Geological Survey of Canada, and for nine years was engaged in the exploration of British Columbia, the Yukon Valley, and the high plains of the northwest. While his work was primarily geological, still we owe to him, more than to any other explorer, our present knowledge of the northwestern part of North America. In 1883 he was appointed assistant director of the Geological Survey, and in 1895 became its director, which position he held until his death, on March 2, 1901.
During his quarter century of active work many duties were imposed upon Mr. Dawson and many were the honors he received. In 1891 and 1892 he served on the Bering Sea Commission, and for his services received the order of Companion of St. Michael and St. George. In 1891 he received from the Royal Society of England, of which he was a fellow, the Bigsby medal for his researches in geology, and degrees were conferred upon him by Queens College and McGill University. In 1893 he was elected President of the Royal Society of Canada.
Dr. Dawson's work was mainly that of an explorer, and for that he had, in spite of his physical defect, wonderful ability and fitness. To draw broad and accurate generalizations from the slight data obtained by the explorer requires close observation, great breadth of vision, and high reasoning powers, and in the selection of Dawson for this work the Canadian authorities made no mistake. He has laid down with great accuracy the leading geographic and geologic features of the Canadian Northwest, and thus constructed a skeleton on which future work will supply the details.
HE narrative volume of the famous Harriman Alaska expedition of two summers ago will appear during the present month. Through the courtesy of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, editor of the vol
page photogravures, and 200 insets illustrate this splendid work. Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co., of New York, are the publishers for Mr. Harriman.
ANDORRA AND SAN MARINO
HE two states which look strang
one and of the Harriman publications, Test upon the map of Europe are
the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE is able to present in this number one chapter from this remarkable work-The General Geography of Alaska, by Mr. Henry Gannett.
So rapid has been the exploration of this vast territory during the past five years that few realize the extent of present knowledge of the country. Mr. Gannett, in his paper, gives the most comprehensive statement of the general geographic features as developed by recent exploration that has yet been published.
The narrative of the Harriman expedition is the most trustworthy and at the same time popular work on Alaska which has ever been offered to the public. Mr. John Burroughs opens with the story of the two months' travel of the Harriman party. Mr. John Muir follows with a chapter on the Glaciers. Then Mr. George Bird Grinnell describes the Natives of the Alaskan Continent-the Indians and Eskimo. Wm. H. Dall gives the History of the Discovery and Exploration of Alaska. Mr. Charles A. Keeler has a chapter on the Birds of Alaska, Mr. B. E. Fernow on the Forests, and then follows Mr. Gannett's article on the General Geography of Alaska. Dr. Merriam contributes the concluding chapter on the Volcanoes of the Aleutian Archipelago. The bird pictures by Mr. Louis Fuertes, the plant pictures by Mr. Walpole, and the fiord scenes by Mr. Dellenbaugh form a notable feature of the volume. Twenty colored plates, over 100 full
the tiny Republics of Andorra, in the eastern Pyrenees, and of San Marino, in northeastern Italy. Each owed its original independence to its strong natural position; then for centuries the shrewdness of its inhabitants knew how to play off one enemy against another. In modern times its neighbors have seemed to feel a sort of chivalric sentiment for it because it has taken care of itself so long.
The Republic of Andorra has existed since the eighth century. When the Moslems invaded France from Spain in the eighth century that little territory in the mountains was not conquered by them and has remained independent ever since. It now enjoys the joint protection of France and of the Spanish Bishop of Urgel. Its extent is less than 175 square miles. Its hardly more than 6,000 inhabitants are almost all miners and farmers. It is governed by a representative council of 24 persons, who are chosen by the heads of families.
The Republic of San Marino, though having a population of about 10,000, is only one-fifth as large in area, but is still more ancient. In fact, it is the smallest and the oldest independent republic on the globe. It is governed by a Great Council of 60 members and a Minor Council of 12 members. It has an army of 938 men, and spends about $10,000 annually on internal improvements. On June 28, 1897, San Marino concluded a formal treaty of friendship with Italy.
HE following decisions were made
Tby the U. S. Board on Geographic
Names, April 3, 1901:
Aowa; creek, Dixon County, Nebraska (not Aoway nor Ayoway). Apple; group of islands in northern
part of Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not Iabloshni, Middle, nor Sredni). Basket; bay indenting the southeastern shore of Chichagof Island, southeastern Alaska (not Kakagin nor Kook).
Bendel; island between Big Koniuji and Nagai Islands, Shumagin group, Alaska (not Morse).
Bois d'Arc; creek, Ellis County, Texas. Bois d'Arc; creeks (two), Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory.
Bois d'Arc; post-office, Greene County, Missouri.
Bois d'Arc; river in northern Texas. Bois d'Arc; township, Montgomery County, Illinois.
Broad; island near the junction of Hooniah Sound and Peril Strait, southeastern Alaska (not Crosswise nor Poperetchni).
Buncombe; creek, Chickasaw Nation,
Indian Territory (not Boncombe). Cacaway; island and point, Langford
Bay, Kent County, Maryland (not)
Camp Coogan; bay in eastern part of
Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not Camp Cogan, Camp Kogan, Kadiak, nor Nachlezmia). Cliffs; point, Chester River, Kent County, Maryland (not Cliff City, Cliff's, nor Starts).
Comet; peak, Pinal County, Arizona (not Camels nor Comets). Eyak; lake and native village at western edge of the Copper River delta, Alaska (not Eyack, Eyuk, Ighiak, Ikhiak, nor Odiak). Fryingpan; cove, Eastern Neck Island, Kent County, Maryland (not Boxes nor Frying Pan).
Glenhaven; post-office, railroad station and township, Grant County, Wisconsin (not Glen Haven). Hauani; creek, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory (not Haiyona nor Hiayona).
Hound; island in northern part of Keku Strait, southeastern Alaska (not Round).
Inner; point on the southeastern shore of Kruzof Island, Sitka Sound, southeastern Alaska (not Rocky nor Second).
Koip; peak and ridge on boundary between Mono and Tuolumne Counties, California (not Ko-it). Leechville; post-office and village, Beaufort County, North Carolina (not Leachville).
Leevining; cañon, creek, and peak,
Mono County, California (not Levining nor Vining).
Luppatatong; creek in Keyport, Mon
mouth County, New Jersey (not Lupatatong, Lupatcong, nor Luppatcong).
North Gabouri; creek, Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri (not North Gabor nor North Gabori).
Oraibi; post-office and village, Navajo County, Arizona (not Oraiba). Piute; peak and post-office, Kern County, California (not Pah-ute, Pahute, nor Paiute).
Rockhall; district No. 5, Kent County, Maryland (not Edesville). Shoshone; river, tributary to the Big
Horn River, Big Horn County, Wyoming (not Stinking Water). *The legislature of the State of Wyoming passed an act, which was approved February 14, 1901, as follows:
"Be it enacted by the legislature of the State of Wyoming:
SECTION I. That the name of the stream of water known on the map of the United States as the Stinking Water River, situated in Big Horn County, Wyoming, and emptying into the Big Horn River, is hereby changed to the Shoshone River, and shall hereafter be designated and known as such.
'SEC. 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage."