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tions from New Mexico, as the fragment of chain mail tends to prove.

Altogether Professor Udden's work is worthy of high praise. It is regrettable that "this will be his last as well as his first paper bearing on topics of this kind.' F. W. HODGE.

The Romance of the Earth. By A. W. Bickerton. Illustrated. Small 8vo, pp. 181. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1900. $0.80.

As indicated by the title, the author aims to describe the past and present of the earth in the form of a story. The idea and its execution are capital. The author naturally has not adhered strictly to the limits of known science. Where human knowledge can throw no light, he permits himself "to speculate, to make deductions from the accepted laws of nature" in order that no chapters in the romance may be missing. The book is instructive and interesting, and espe

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The Philippines-The War and the People. By Albert G. Robinson. Pp. 407. New York. McClure, Phillips & Co. 1901.

The volume consists of letters written by Mr Robinson to the New York Evening Post while he was staff correspondent for that journal in the Philippines. Mr Robinson is inclined to believe "that development in the islands would be impossible without the patient, submissive, industrious Chinaman, who is "a sort of necessary evil." The book contains much valuable information about the islands and their people, though it is doubtful if many Americans will agree with the author's pro-Filipino tendencies. Specially interesting chapters are, "The Moros of Mindanao" and "The Moros of Sulu."


Popular Meetings.*


March 1, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Mr. Gilson Willetts delivered an illustrated address, "The Recent Famine in India."

March 15, 1901.-Vice-President McGee in the chair. Mr. H. L. Bridgman, Secretary of the Peary Arctic Club, and Dr. Frederic A. Cook, of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, delivered illustrated addresses on "The Two Ends of the Earth-Peary and the North Pole, and The Cruise of the Belgica in the Antarctics."

March 29, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Mr. Alexander Hume Ford delivered an illustrated address, "The Railways and Waterways of the Russian Empire."

*The proceedings of the technical meetings during March will appear in the May number.

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March 12, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Hon. John Barrett delivered an illustrated address, "Eastern Asia-China." March 22, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Prof. H. Morse Stephens, of Cornell University, delivered an address, Southern Asia-India."

March 26, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Prof. Edwin A. Grosvenor, of Amherst College, delivered an illustrated address, "Northern Asia-Siberia."

April 2, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Vice-President McGee delivered an illustrated address, "Asia-The Cradle of Humanity."


THE ANNUAL RECEPTION OF the Society will be held on Friday evening, April 12, in the parlors of the Arlington hotel. Mr. Paul Du Chaillu will be the guest of honor of the Society and will give some reminiscences of his travels.

A REGULAR MEETING OF THE SOCIETY will be held in the large hall of the Cosmos Club at eight o'clock Friday evening, April 19. All members resident in Washington are urged to attend, as important proposed changes in the by-laws, submitted and recommended by the Board of Managers, will be acted upon.

Object of Proposed Change in By-laws.

addition of members not residing in the District; (2) the creation of an Executive Committee for the transaction of current business; (3) the restoration of the fiscal year to coincidence with the calendar year; (4) the omission of section 8 of article IV, with reference to Managers who are continuously absent from meetings of the Board.

They include also a number of changes not specially related to the general change in organization. The more important of these are (1) the substitution of the single office of Secretary for the two offices of Recording Secretary and Corresponding Secretary; (2) the omission of the requirement that the Secretary and Treasurer be selected from the Board of Managers; (3) the making more stringent the rules with respect to arrearage of dues; (4) the reduction of the quorum of the Society from 25 to 20; (5) the provision that official notice of proposed amendments to the by-laws may be given through the Magazine.

The amendments will come up for action at the regular meeting to be held April 19. A. J. HENRY, Secretary.

The Board of Managers submits and recommends to the Society important amendments to the by-laws. The proposed changes are so numerous that, for the sake of simplicity, the Board offers an entire set of revised by-laws to replace the existing by-laws. Members who wish to note in detail the modifications proposed can do so by comparing the draft which follows with the existing by-laws as printed Proposed By-laws. in the MAGAZINE, Vol. IX, pages 414-416. The general tenor of the changes is set forth in the following paragraphs:

In an address read to the Board of Managers June 1, 1900, and printed in the Magazine for October (Vol. XI, pages 401-408), President Bell advocated various changes in the policy of the Society, for the purpose of making its character more truly national. The revised by-laws now offered embody one of the more radical of these changes.

At the present time the Society has active members, residing chiefly in the District of Columbia, and corresponding members, residing chiefly in other parts of the United States. The dues of active members are five dollars, of corresponding members two dollars. Both classes receive the Magazine; active members have in addition various other privileges, including that of attending lectures. Thus constituted the Society is not national in its active membership, but only through its corresponding membership. It is now proposed (1) to merge the grades of corresponding member and active member into the single grade of member, (2) to fix the dues for all at two dollars, (3) to treat lecture courses, whether in Washington or elsewhere, as local privileges, to be paid for by those who are benefited.

The proposed by-laws include many minor changes which seem to the Board desirable if the general change in organization be adopted. The more important of these are (1) the enlargement of the Board of Managers by the


The name of this Society is The National Geographic Society.


The object of the Society is the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge.

ARTICLE III.—Membership.

SECTION I. The Society shall consist of members and honorary members.

SEC. 2. Members shall be persons interested in geographic science.

SEC. 3. Honorary members shall he persons who have attained eminence by the promotion of geographic science. They shall not be members of the corporation, nor shall they vote or hold office.

SEC. 4. The election of members and honorary members shall be entrusted to the Board of Managers.

ARTICLE IV.-Officers.

SECTION I.-The administration of the Society shall be entrusted to a Board of Managers composed of twenty-four members, eight of whom shall be elected by the Society at each annual meeting, to serve for three years, or until their successors are elected. Of the eight members elected at each annual meeting, not less than four nor more than six shall

be residents of the District of Columbia. A majority of the votes cast shall be necessary for election.

SEC. 2. The Board of Managers shall elect annually from their own number a President and a Vice-President, and shall elect annually a Treasurer and a Secretary.

SEC. 3. The President shall preside at the meetings of the Society and of the Board of Managers, or may delegate this duty. The President and the Secretary shall sign all written contracts and obligations of the Society. SEC. 4. In the absence of the President his duties shall devolve on the Vice-President.

SEC. 5. The Treasurer shall have charge of the funds of the Society, under the direction of the Board of Managers, and shall make collections and disbursements and render an annual report, and his accounts shall be audited by a committee of the Society, not members of the Board, annually and at such other times as the Board may direct.

SEC. 6. The Secretary shall record the proceedings of the Society and of the Board of Managers, conduct correspondence, and make an annual report.

SEC. 7. The Board of Managers shall fill vacancies arising in the Board.

SEC. 8. All officers shall serve until their successors are chosen.

ARTICLE V.-Committees.

SECTION 1. The Board of Managers shall select annually from its own number an Executive Committee.

SEC. 2. There shall be standing committees on Publications, Communications, Admissions, Research, and Finance, whose chairmen shall be members of the Board of Managers. These committees shall be appointed immediately after the annual election of the President to serve until their successors are designated.

SEC. 3. The committees of the Society and of the Board of Managers shall be appointed by the President, except when otherwise provided. The President shall be a member ex officio of every committee.

ARTICLE VI.—Finances.

SECTION I. The fiscal year of the Society shall begin on the first day of January.

SEC. 2. The annual dues of members shall be two dollars, payable in January.

SEC. 3. Annual dues may be commuted and life membership acquired by the payment at one time of fifty dollars.

SEC. 4. Members whose dues remain unpaid on March I shall be notified by the Treasurer that unless the dues are paid within one month they will be in arrears and not entitled to vote at the annual meeting, to receive the

publications of the Society, or to purchase lecture tickets on members' terms. Members one year in arrears shall, after forma! notification, be regarded as having withdrawn from the Society.

SEC. 5. The funds of the Society may be invested and loans may be negotiated in the interests of the Society, and any other financial business germane to the purposes of the Society may be transacted by the Board of Managers.

ARTICLE VII.-Meetings.

SECTION I. Regular meetings of the Society shall be held on alternate Fridays from November until May.

SEC. 2. Special meetings may be ordered by the Board of Managers or called by the President.

SEC. 3. The annual meeting shall be held in the District of Columbia on the second Friday in January.

SEC. 4. Twenty members shall constitute a quorum.

SEC. 5. Regular meetings of the Board of Managers shall be held on the same days as the regular meetings of the Society; special meetings may be held at the call of the President or on notice signed by five members of the Board: Provided, That for any of its own meetings the Board may substitute meetings of the Executive Committee.

SEC. 6. Lectures and lecture courses may be provided by the Board of Managers. Free admission to such lectures shall not be a prerogative of membership, but tickets shall be sold to members on more favorable terms than to non-members: Provided, That each life member who acquired life membership prior to the year 1901 shall be entitled to two admissions to each lecture and course.

ARTICLE VIII.-Publications.

The Society shall publish a journal or periodical under the title THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, which shall be sent to all members of the Society not in arrears, and may be placed on sale.

ARTICLE IX.-Amendments.

These By-Laws may be amended by a twothirds vote of the members present at any regular meeting, provided the proposed amendments are reported by the Board of Managers, and provided that notice thereof has been sent to all members of the Society not less than ten nor more than sixty days before the meeting. The publication of proposed amendments in THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE shall be deemed a notice within the meaning of this article.







N attaining their independence, the Latin-American republics modeled their forms of government after that of the United States. In almost all their constitutions the article relating to the executive power, like that of the United States, contained no prohibition against the reëlection of the President. But a bitter and bloody experience has caused them, with nearly the same degree of unanimity, to revise their constitutions in this respect.

The provisions of the existing constitutions of those countries relating to the executive may be briefly enumerated as follows: In Mexico the president is chosen for four years by an electoral college, and no prohibition exists against a reëlection. The cause of this exception to the general practice will be referred to later. The secretary of foreign relations succeeds to the presidency on the death or disability of the president and orders a new election. In the five Central American States the provisions vary as to the manner of election and term of office, but in most of them the president is made ineligible for reëlection

for the next succeeding term.

So, also the prohibition against reëlection to be noted in the countries which follow is in almost all cases for the next succeeding term only. In Colombia the president is chosen by an electoral college for a period of six years, and is made ineligible for reëlection. Ecuador elects its president by the direct vote of the people for the term of four years, and he cannot be reëlected. The vice-president is elected for the same. term, but two years after the president. Peru elects its president by a direct popular vote for four years, and he is made ineligible for the next four years. Two vice-presidents are elected. Bolivia has the same provision as Peru. In Chile the president is elected by delegates chosen by the people for the term of five years, and he is made ineligible for the next term. The Argentine Republic elects its president by electors chosen by the fourteen provinces for six years, and both the president and vice-president are declared ineligible for reëlection. In Uruguay the president is elected for four years, and made ineligible for the suc

ceeding term. In Paraguay the president is chosen by a direct vote of the people for four years, and both president and vice-president are non-eligible for eight years. Brazil, the last of these Brazil, the last of these countries to assume a republican form of government, and profiting by the experience of its neighbors, provided for the election of its president by a direct, vote of the people for four years, and made him ineligible for reëlection. Its constitution also contains a provision that the candidates must not be related by blood or marriage to the outgoing president or vice-president in the first or second degree. In Venezuela the choice of the chief executive is somewhat complicated. Congress consists of two houses, the representatives being elected for two years by the people, and the senators for four years by the state legislatures. A federal council of nineteen members is chosen every two years by the congress, who elects a presiding officer from their own number, and he is president of the republic for the two years. Neither the president nor council can be reëlected for the next term.

When these countries declared their independence and first essayed the practice of republican government, they soon found that the greatest danger to their institutions arose from the disposition of the chief executives to prolong their power by continuance in office, in violation of the constitutional provision. Iturbide, the first president of Mexico, betrayed his trust, declared himself emperor, and dissolved the congress by force, precipitating the country into revolution and paying the penalty with his life.

Simon Bolívar, the most renowned of the Spanish-American patriots and the one who did most to achieve the independence of the South American countries, marked his entire career by overriding their constitutional provisions as to the executive and by assuming dictatorial powers. As early as 1813 he

captured Caracas from the Spaniards and set up the government of Venezuela, but he at once declared himself dictator, established a court and bodyguard, and assumed royal dignities. He soon became unpopular, met with reverses, and had to flee the country. Returning after some years, he led the insurrectionary movement which gave final independence to Venezuela and Colombia, and thence went to the aid of the struggling Peruvian patriots, achieved their independence, and was made dictator of that country. Having failed in his effort to secure a provision in the constitution making himself president for life, he returned to Colombia, where he was chosen president of the united states of Colombia and Venezuela. Seeking in vain to secure a constitutional provision giving him practically absolute power, he declared himself dictator. Being suspected of desiring to make himself a king, he lost his popularity, was driven from power, and died in retirement. He was called

the Washington of South America," but beyond his gallant services in securing the independence of the northern states of South America, he had little in common with Washington in his conduct or character. The example of the latter was lost upon him when he rejected the offer of the American army to make him king, and when, after having enjoyed the free suffrages of his countrymen as President, he voluntarily laid down the great office and retired to private life.

If the history of the Latin American republics is carefully examined it will be seen that the cause of most of the revolutions which have darkened its pages, decimated their population, and retarded their development has had its origin in the efforts of the public men of those countries to continue themselves in power or to attain the presidency by other than peaceful and constitutional methods. With rare excep

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