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tions from New Mexico, as the fragment cially valuable to stimulate younger of chain mail tends to prove.

minds to learn more of the great roAltogether Professor Udden's work is mance of the earth." worthy of high praise. It is regrettable that “this will be his last as well as his The Philippines—The War and the first paper bearing on topics of this People. By Albert G. Robinson. kind.' F. W. HODGE.

Pp. 407

New York. McClure,

Phillips & Co. 1901. The Romance of the Earth. By A. W.

The volume consists of letters written Bickerton. Illustrated. Small 8vo,

by Mr Robinson to the New York Evenpp. 181. New York : The Macmillan

ing Post while he was staff correspondCo., 1900. $0.80.

ent for that journal in the Philippines. As indicated by the title, the author Mr Robinson is inclined to believe “that aims to describe the past and present of development in the islands would be imthe earth in the form of a story. The idea possible without the patient, submissive, and its execution are capital. The author industrious Chinaman," who is “a sort naturally has not adhered strictly to the of necessary evil." The book contains limits of known science. Where human much valuable information about the knowledge can throw no light, he per- islands and their people, though it is mits himself “to speculate, to make doubtful if many Americans will agree deductions from the accepted laws of with the author's pro-Filipino tendennature" in order that no chapters in the cies. Specially interesting chapters are, romance may be missing. The book is · The Moros of Mindanao” and “The instructive and interesting, and espe- Moros of Sulu."

PROCEEDINGS OF

OF THE NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

an

Popular Meetings.*

March 1, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Mr. Gilson Willetts delivered an illustrated address, “The Recent Famine in India."

March 15, 1901.-Vice-President McGee in the chair. Mr. H. L. Bridgman, Secretary of the Peary Arctic Club, and Dr. Frederic A. Cook, of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, delivered illustrated addresses on “The Two Ends of the Earth—Peary and the North Pole, and The Cruise of the Belgica in the Antarctics."

March 29, 1901.--President Graham Bell in the chair. Mr. Alexander Hume Ford delivered an illustrated address, “The Railways and Waterways of the Russian Empire."

Afternoon Meetings.

March 5, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair, Talcott Williams, LL. D., delivered illustrated address, “Western Asia."

March 12, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Hon. John Barrett delivered an illustrated address, “ Eastern Asia-China."

March 22, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Prof.H. Morse Stephens, of Cornell University, delivered an address,

« Southern Asia-India."

March 26, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Prof. Edwin A. Grosvenor, of Amherst College, delivered an illustrated address, “Northern Asia-Siberia.”

April 2, 1901.-President Graham Bell in the chair. Vice-President McGee delivered an illustrated address, “Asia- The Cradle of Humanity.”

* The proceedings of the technical meetings during March will appear in the May mumber.

MEETING

acted upon.

Announcements.

addition of members not residing in the Dis

trict ; (2) the creation of an Executive ComTHE ANNUAL RECEPTION OF THE SOCIETY mittee for the transaction of current business ; will be held on Friday evening, April 12, in (3) the restoration of the fiscal year to coincithe parlors of the Arlingtou hotel. Mr. Paul dence with the calendar year; (4) the omisDu Chaillu will be the guest of honor of the sion of section 8 of article IV, with reference Society and will give some reminiscences of to Managers who are continuously absent from his travels.

meetings of the Board. A REGULAR

OF THE SOCIETY They include also a vumber of changes not will be held in the large hall of the Cosmos specially related to the general change in orClub at eight o'clock Friday evening. April ganization. The more important of these are 19. All members resident in Washington (1) the substitution of the single office of Secare urged to attend, as important proposed retary for the two offices of Recording Secrechanges in the by-laws, submitted and recom- tary and Corresponding Secretary; (2) the mended by the Board of Managers, will be omission of the requirement that the Secre

tary and Treasurer be selected from the Board

of Managers; (3) the making more striugeut Object of Proposed Change in By-laws. the rules with respect to arrearage of dues;

(4) the reduction of the quorum of the Society The Board of Managers submits and recom- from 25 to 20; (5) the provision that official mends to the Society important amendments notice of proposed amendinents to the by-laws to the by-laws. The proposed changes are so may be given through the Magazine. numerous that, for the sake of simplicity, the The amendments will come up for action at Board offers an entire set of revised by-laws the regular meeting to be held April 19. to replace the existing by-laws. Members who wish to note in detail the modifications pro

A. J. HENRY, Secretary. posed can do so by comparing the draft which follows with the existing by-laws as printed Proposed By-laws.

in the MAGAZINE, Vol. IX, pages 414-416. The general tenor of the changes is set forth

ARTICLE I.--Name. in the following paragraphs :

In an address read to the Board of Managers The name of this Society is The National June 1, 1900, and printed in the Magazine for Geographic Society. October (Vol. XI, pages 401-408), President Bell advocated various changes in the policy

ARTICLE II.-Object. of the Society, for the purpose of making its

The object of the Society is the increase character more truly national. The revised

and diffusion of geographic knowledge. "by-laws now offered embody one of the more radical of these changes.

ARTICLE III.- Membership At the present time the Society has active members, residing chiefly in the District of Co

SECTION 1. The Society shall consist of lumbia, and corresponding members, residing

members and honorary members. chiefly in other parts of the United States.

SEC. 2. Members shall be persons interested The dues of active members are five dollars,

in geographic science. of corresponding members two dollars. Both

SEC. 3. Honorary members shall be persons classes receive the Magazine ; active members

who have attained eminence by the promotion have iu addition various other privileges, in

of geographic science. They shall not be cluding that of attending lectures. Thus con

members of the corporation, nor shall they stituted the Society is not national in its active

vote or hold office. membership, but only through its correspond

SEC. 4. The election of members and honing membership. It is now proposed (1) to

orary members shall be entrusted to the Board merge the grades of corresponding member

of Managers. and active member into the single grade of member, (2) to fix the dues for all at two dol

ARTICLE IV.-Officers. lars, (3) to treat lecture courses, whether in SECTION 1.---The administration of the SoWashington or elsewhere, as local privileges, ciety shall be entrusted to a Board of Manato be paid for by those who are benefited. gers composed of twenty-four members, eight

The proposed by-laws include many minor of whom shall be elected by the Society at changes which seem to the Board desirable if each annual meeting, to serve for three years, the general change in organization be adopted. or until their successors are elected. Of the The more important of these are (1) the en- eiglit members elected at each annual meetlargement of the Board of Managers by the iny, not less than four nor more than six shall be residents of the District of Columbia. A majority of the votes cast shall be necessary for election.

SEC. 2. The Board of Managers shall elect annually from their own number a President and a Vice-President, and shall elect annually a Treasurer and a Secretary.

Sec. 3. The President shall preside at the meetings of the Society and of the Board of Managers, or may delegate this duty. The President and the Secretary shall sign all written contracts and obligations of the Society.

SEC. 4. In the absence of the President his duties shall devolve on the Vice-President.

Sec. 5. The Treasurer shall have charge of the funds of the Society, under the direction of the Board of Managers, and shall make collections and disbursements and render an annual report, and his accounts shall be audited by a committee of the Society, not members of the Board, ammually and at such other times as the Board may direct.

SEC. 6. The Secretary shall record the proceedings of the Society and of the Board of Managers, conduct correspondence, and make an annual report.

SEC. 7. The Board of Managers shall fill vacancies arising in the Board.

SEC. 8. All officers shall serve until their successors are chosen.

ARTICLE V.-Committees. SECTION 1. The Board of Managers shall select annually from its own number an Executive Committee.

SEC. 2. There shall be standing committees on Publications, Communications, Admissions, Research, and Finance, wliose chairmen shall be members of the Board of Managers. These committees shall be appointed immediately after the annual election of the President to serve until their successors are designated.

Sec. 3. The committees of the Society and of the Board of Managers sliall be appointed by the President, except when otherwise provided. The President shall be a member ex officio of every committee.

ARTICLE VI.-Finances. SECTION 1. The fiscal year of tlie Society shall begin on the first day of January.

SEC. 2. The annual dues of members shall be two dollars, payable in January.

Sec. 3. Anual dues may be comunuted and life membership acquired by the payment at one time of fifty dollars.

SEC. 4. Members wliose dues remain unpaid on March I shall be notified by the Treasurer that unless the dues are paid within one month they will be in arrears and not entitled to vote at ihe annual meeting, to receive the

publications of the Society, or to purchase lecture tickets on members' terms. Members one year in arrears shall, after forma! notification, be regarded as having withdrawu from the Society.

Sec. 5. The funds of the Society may be invested and loans may be negotiated in the interests of the Society, and any other financial business germane to the purposes of the Society may be transacted by the Board of Managers.

ARTICLE VII.-Meetings. SECTION I. Regular meetings of the Society shall be held on alternate Fridays from November until May.

SEC. 2. Special meetings may be ordered by the Board of Managers or called by the President.

SEC. 3. The annual meeting shall be held in the District of Columbia on the second Friday in January.

SEC. 4. Twenty members shall constitute a quorum.

Sec. 5. Regular meetings of the Board of Managers shall be held on the same days as the regular meetings of the Society; special meetings may be held at the call of the President or on notice signed by five members of the Board : Provided, That for any of its own meetings the Boarı may substitute meetinis of the Executive Committee.

SEC. 6. Lectures and lecture courses may be provided by the Board of Managers. Free adın ission to such lectures shall not be a prerogative of membership, but tickets shall be sold to members ou more favorable terms than to non-members: Provided, That each life member wlio acquired life membership prior to the year 1901 shall be entitled to two ailmissions to each lecture and course.

ARTICLE VIII. - Publications. The Society shall publishi a journal or periodical under the title THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, which shall be sent to all members of the Society not iu arrears, and may be placed on sale.

ARTICIE IX.- Amendments. Tliese By-Laws may be amended by a twothirds vote of the members present at any regular meeting, provided the proposed amendments are reported by the Board of Managers, and provided that notice thereof has been sent to all members of the Society hot less than ten vor more than sixty days before the meeting. The publication of proposed amend. ments in THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE shall be deemed a notice within the meaning of this article.

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

THE LATIN-AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONS

AND REVOLUTIONS

By John W. Foster, Ex-SECRETARY OF STATE

O

N attaining their independence, for the next succeeding term. So, also

the Latin-American republics the prohibition against reëlection to be

modeled their forms of govern- noted in the countries which follow is ment after that of the United States. in almost all cases for the next sucIn almost all their constitutions the ceeding term only. In Colombia the article relating to the executive power, president is chosen by an electoral collike that of the United States, contained lege for a period of six years, and is no prohibition against the reëlection of made ineligible for reëlection. Ecuathe President. But a bitter and bloody dor elects its president by the direct experience has caused them, with nearly vote of the people for the term of four the same degree of unanimity, to revise years, and he cannot be reëlected. The their constitutions in this respect. vice-president is elected for the same

The provisions of the existing consti- term, but two years after the president. tutions of those countries relating to the Peru elects its president by a direct popexecutive may be briefly enumerated as ular vote for four years, and he is made follows: In Mexico the president is ineligible for the next four years. Two chosen for four years by an electoral col- vice-presidents are elected. Bolivia has lege, and no prohibition exists against a the same provision as Peru. In Chile reëlection. The cause of this exception the president is elected by delegates to the general practice will be referred chosen by the people for the term of to later. The secretary of foreign re- five years, and he is made ineligible for lations succeeds to the presidency on the the next term. The Argentine Repubdeath or disability of the president and lic elects its president by electors chosen orders a new election. In the five Cen- by the fourteen provinces for six years, tral American States the provisions vary and both the president and vice-president as to the manner of election and term are declared ineligible for reëlection. In of office, but in most of them the presi- Uruguay the president is elected for four dent is made ineligible for reëlection years, and made ineligible for the succeeding term. In Paraguay the presi- captured Caracas from the Spaniards dent is chosen by a direct vote of the and set up the government of Venepeople for four years, and both presi- zuela, but he at once declared himself dent and vice-president are non-eligible dictator, established a court and bodyfor eight years. Brazil, the last of these guard, and assumed royal dignities. countries to assume a republican form He soon became unpopular, met with of government, and profiting by the ex- reverses, and had to flee the country. perience of its neighbors, provided for Returning after some years, he led the the election of its president by a direct, insurrectionary movement which gave vote of the people for four years, and final independence to Venezuela and made him ineligible for reëlection. Its Colombia, and thence went to the aid constitution also contains a provision of the struggling Peruvian patriots, that the candidates must not be related achieved their independence, and was by blood or marriage to the outgoing made dictator of that country. Having president or vice-president in the first failed in his effort to secure a provision or second degree. In Venezuela the in the constitution making himself choice of the chief executive is somewhat president for life, he returned to Cocomplicated. Congress consists of two lombia, where he was chosen president houses, the representatives being elected of the united states of Colombia and for two years by the people, and the Venezuela. Seeking in vain to secure senators for four years by the state a constitutional provision giving him legislatures. A federal council of nine- practically absolute power, he declared teen members is chosen every two years himself dictator. Being suspected of by the congress, who elects a presiding desiring to make himself a king, he lost officer from their own number, and he his popularity, was driven from power, is president of the republic for the two and died in retirement. He was called years. Neither the president nor coun- “the Washington of South America," cil can be reëlected for the next term. but beyond his gallant services in secur

When these countries declared their ing the independence of the northern independence and first essayed the prac- states of South America, he had little tice of republican government, they soon in common with Washington in his confound that the greatest danger to their duct or character. The example of the institutions arose from the disposition latter was lost upon him when he reof the chief executives to prolong their jected the offer of the American army power by continuance in office, in vio- to make him king, and when, after lation of the constitutional provision. having enjoyed the free suffrages of his Iturbide, the first president of Mexico, countrymen as President, he voluntarily betrayed his trust, declared himself em- laid down the great office and retired to peror, and dissolved the congress by private life. force, precipitating the country into If the history of the Latin American revolution and paying the penalty with republies is carefully examined it will his life.

be seen that the cause of most of the Simon Bolívar, the most renowned of revolutions which have darkened its the Spanish-American patriots and the pages, decimated their population, and one who did most to achieve the inde- retarded their development has had its pendence of the South American coun- origin in the efforts of the public men tries, marked his entire career by over- of those countries to continue themriding their constitutional provisions as selves in power or to attain the presito the executive and hy assuming dicta- deney by other than peaceful and contorial powers. As early as 1813 he stitutional methods. With rare excep

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