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U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC Pole to a central point on the tropic of SURVEY

Capricorn, in longitude 86° • E., does

not satisfactorily account for the geolog"IFTEEN young Filipinos will ical facts and the existence of glacial

soon be selected by civil service conditions over such an enormous area. examinations in Manila as aids in the Professor Penck is quoted in Nature as U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. They saying that the appearances ascribed to will probably be brought to the United ice action present in each case certain States for a preliminary training at the features not characteristic of ordinary head office in Washington before being glacial deposits; the deposits are stratiassigned to active work in charting the fied and the pebbles are faceted in the rivers and harbors of the islands. They manner first described by Wynne. He will be paid $720 a year, a very generous further observes that the Gondwana salary in the Philippines, and clever beds, always closely associated with young Filipinos will undoubtedly be se- these boulder deposits, have lately been cured. The experiment, initiated by found in the Argentine Republic, and Dr. O. H. Tittmann, superintendent of he compares the bedding and faceting the Survey, is of great importance, as it with conditions induced by pressure is the first step to interest, train, and observed in the Nagelfluh and in ceridentify the young Filipino in the scien- tain localities near Vienna. While tific development of his country.

many of the observed facts appear to The coast of southeastern Alaska has indicate glacial action, still lie thinks been well charted by parties of the Survey that these special points demand induring the past several years, but the vestigation. approaches to this section have remained unmapped. This summer the Pathfinder and Mc.4rthur, in charge respect- THE NORTHWEST BOUNDARY ively of J. J. Gilbert and F. Westdale, will carry survey parties to these chian. T is well known that the boundary nels and soundings will be taken to ac- between the British possessions in curately determine them. A large party North America and the United States, will work in Prince William Sound, from the Lake of the Woods westward while several vessels will carry other to the Pacific Ocean, was long a matter men westward to tackle the difficult of dispute. Every one knows, too, that problem of charting the many channels after the controversy had given rise to between the Fox Islands of the Aleutian threats of war the 49th parallel was archipelago.

agreed upon by both goveruments as the dividing line. So, as represented upon

thie map, the whole question seems setGLACIAL ACTION IN AUS- tled. Nevertheless there are many perTRALIA

sous along this line to whom nothing

indicates whether they are living in the HE evidences of glacial action in territory of the King or of the Union.

Australia during Permo-Carbon- During 1872–76 a joint commission iferous times are discussed by Pro- erected 388 boundary monuments along fessor Penck in the Zeitschrift of the the line about two miles apart, but they Berlin Gessellschaft für Erdkunde, and hardly proceeded farther west than the compared with traces of simultaneous Rocky Mountains, and left the 410 miles action in India and South Africa. The between the mountains and the Strait of hypothesis of a shifting of the South Georgia almost unmarked. To survey

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scribing in detail the location of this WORK is progressing on the tele

and mark out this far northwest bound- line, even though an axle or a wheel ary an expedition is now being organ- should break. ized by the Geological Survey, at the The motive power is electricity, supdirection of the State Department. It plied by a wire attached to the rail. is probable that the Canadian authori- Each pair of wlieels is operated by an ties will coöperate with the Americans electric motor controlled by a motorman in definitely indicating the exact bound- in the front car. The railroad is the inary. Much of this region is still with- vention of the late Herr Eugene Langer, out roads and trails. The work will of Cologne, who died in 1895. The be difficult, as it must be prosecuted in chief advantage claimed is cheapness of part through the wildest region of the construction, for the line can be built Rockies and Cascades, where impassable over public roads and rivers, where no streams and lofty cliffs make direct ad- ground need be purchased. vance impossible. The necessary surveys will require three or four years.

After the work is completed it must CAPE TO CAIRO TELEGRAPH be approved by a treaty between the

, de

graph line from Cairo to the part of the northwest boundary and the Cape, although little has been heard monuments by which it is indicated. about it of late, owing to the war in

Mr. E. C. Barnard, the well-known South Africa and the great distance topographer of the U. S. Geological from civilization the engineers have Survey, will run the line, in coöperation penetrated. The line of poles and wire with Mr. C. H. Sinclair, of the Coast now stretches 3,000 miles up from the and Geodetic Survey. Messrs. Bailev

Cape to a point 50 miles north of the Willis, F. L. Ransom, and G. O. Smith towni of Kasanga, on the shore of Tanaccompany the party as geologists to ganyika, in German East Africa. Only study the geology of the country in the 1,200 miles remain between Kasanga vicinity of the dividing line.

and the southern end of the Egyptian telegraph line. This last link will be

traversed more easily, as the apparatus SUSPENSION RAILROAD IN and supplies can be brought by water GERMANY

instead of by native porters. Porters have to be continually engaged, as the

men refuse to go more than a few hunconstruction has recently been dred miles from their homes. Horses, opened at Elberfeld, in Germany. It mules, and cattle cannot be employed, is about eight miles in length and runs as they cannot survive the bite of the through the towns of Barmen and El- tsetse fly. berfeld, following the course of the river The country just traversed between Wupper. The up-and-down lines have Lake Tanganyika and Salisbury is the only a single rail apiece, supported by hardest bit of ground to be met with, an iron framework of a kind hitherto for it is mountainous, heavily wooded, unknown in railroad engineering. Each and malarious. Mr. E. S. Grogan, the car hangs from two supports 25 feet explorer, reports having seen engineers a part, fitted with double wheels, which supervising the work from litters while run upon the overhead rail.

racked with fever and the thermometer ports are so shaped that it is believed standing at 104°. to be impossible for them to leave the The rinderpest and the war with the

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These sup

Matabeles which followed also delayed GREAT BRITAIN IN THE the work. The Matabeles misunder

YANGTZE VALLEY stood the white man's motive in killing their apparently well cattle, but which were really infected with the disease,

the decay of British influence in and in revenge tore down miles of tele- southern China during the last five years. graph poles and melted his wire into It is not merely that British influence bullets, which they fired back at him. has declined, but that the influence of In this war $200,000 worth of the com- other powers has largely developed in pany's supplies were destroyed.

a region supposed to be distinctively the They have had less trouble than was British sphere. Says the Shanghai corexpected from wild animals; sometimes, respondent of the Times in a recent letto be sure, elephants have knocked down ter : “ The Yangtze is steadily growing the poles, and once a lion helped himself less and less English and more and more to several natives before he was killed. international." He fortifies this state

ment by discouraging facts observed in

Shanghai and Hankau, "the key of the GERMAN SUBMARINE CABLE Upper Yangtze." He says : “The one SYSTEM

advantage we still possess over the other

powers in the Yangtze Valley is the conA

fidence and good will of the better classes is being projected by Germany. among the peoples and officials of central In October, 1900, a line was opened China." But he concludes : “British connecting Kiaochau with Chifu, and influence in the Yangtze Valley, as in the the southern end is now being rapidly rest of China, is, relatively to that of other extended to Shanghai and Canton. nations, not an increasing but a steadily Later a branch cable will be laid from and rapidly diminishing quantity.” Kiaochau to Nagasaki to connect with the American Pacific cable, which is destined to be soon constructed, while the . main cable will be continued to Manila, Sir Archibald Geikie, who retired in Sumatra, Borneo, New Guinea, and the March from the head of the British Caroline Islands. From the Azores a Geological Survey, was born in Edinline will be laid southward to the Cape burgh sixty-six years ago. His whole Verde Islands, thence down the Atlantic life has been spent in geologic work. to the South American continent to When barely thirty he was appointed Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Montevideo. Director of the Scottish Geological Sur

On the other side of the Atlantic a vey, and later held the chair of geology German cable will unite Morocco, in Edinburgh University. In 1881 he Guinea, the Kameruns, and German was chosen Director General of the GeoSouthwest Africa. When the construc- logical Survey of the United Kingdom, tion of the system has been completed, and ten years later was knighted in apthe German Emperor will be able to preciation of his work. James Geikie, communicate with his possessions in whose name is perhaps better known in every quarter of the world independent America, is the younger brother of Sir of English lines. His messages will Archibald. J.J. Harris Teall, the wellcross the Pacific and American conti- known writer on geological subjects, has nent on American cables and the At- succeeded Sir Archibald Geikie as Dilantic on the German New York-Azores- rector General of the British Geological Emden line, completed last year,

Survey.

An Austro-Hungarian floating exposi- themselves on opposite sides of an imtion leaves Trieste in May for a fifteen passable mountain range, sixty miles months' voyage around the world. It across. Atlin connects with the United is deemed impracticable for more than States lines uniting Cape Nome, Dawone ship to take part in the enterprise, son, and the military posts of Alaska, as the trip is an experiment. New York, while from Quesnelle wires run to the San Francisco, Yokohama, Shanghai, great continental systems. Singapore, Batavia, Calcutta, Madras, Aden, and Suez will be visited. Firms

In Jamaica an African Language is that send exhibits are charged $1,000

still spoken among the Maroons, the for each person and $200 for every cubic

descendants of wild negroes who escaped meter of space or per ton weight.

from slavery during the early days of

the slave trade. According to Maj. U. S. Weather Bureau.—After July of J. W. Powell, of the Bureau of Amerthis year the number of forecast districts ican Ethnology, this language belongs of the U. S. Weather Bureau will be to the Kongo region. The Maroons of increased by the addition of Boston, Gal- Jamaica seem to be in a barbarous or veston, and Denver as centers of new semi-civilized condition, resembling in districts. The United States is now di- this respect our North American Invided into four districts, each with a dians, and, like the Amerinds, they are center, at which the forecast for that confined to reservations, where they particular district is made.

These cen- still preserve many of the customs and ters are San Francisco, Portland, Oregon, traditions of their savage ancestors. Chicago, and Washington. By the division into smaller districts greater effi

The Recent Census of Vienna shows ciency will be attained.

that in Austria, as in Germany, there

is taking place a very rapid increase in An Earthquake Occurred in Spain on city populations, due in large part to February 10, which did considerable immigration from the rural districts. damage in Grazalema, a town of 10,000 Vienna has now 1,635,647 inhabitants, inhabitants situated in a hilly district of and has increased in population during the province of Cadiz, about 70 kilome- the past ten years 21.9 per cent. Vienna ters, nearly due north, from Gibraltar. now ranks fourth among the European Several large buildings, factories, and capitals, London, Paris, and Berlin exmills, as well as the church of St. Joseph, ceeding her. London and Berlin are were severely injured. Señor Augusto increasing at a faster rate. Of AmerArcimis, writing to Nature from the ican cities, New York and Chicago outCentral Meteorological Institute of Mad- rank Vienna in numbers, and each is rid, says that the body of water that increasing more rapidly--New York provided motive power for the ma- 37.8 per cent, and Chicago 54.4 per chinery in one of the factories has dis cent, in ten years. appeared.

The U.S. Board on Geographic Names British Yukon Telegraph.-It has been held no meeting during March. By act stated with apparent certainty that the of Congress a second edition is being two British parties constructing the tele- printed of the volume containing all the graplı line from Quesnelle to Atlin, who decisions of the Board up to January 1, are working toward each other, the first 1900. Copies of the report may be obfrom Quesnelle northward and the sec- tained by applying to Marcus Baker, ond from Atlin southward, at the half- secretary of the Board, U. S. Geological way point, instead of meeting, found Survey, Washington, D. C.

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GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE

Newest England. By Henry Demarest polishers, metates, manos, flakers, pipes,

Lloyd. Illustrated. 8vo., pp. 387. knives, and scrapers of stone, and awls, New York: Doubleday and Page. hoes, beads, gouges, and other objects Mr. Lloyd ably traces the devel

of bone. Bones of numerous animals, opment of those forces in New Zea- fishes, and the wild turkey, as well as land which have given pensions to

the valves of fresh-water clams, were the old and have made government

also found during the excavations, indimonopolies of life and accident in- cating that the former occupants of the surance, and also of railways and tele- site gained a livelihood by hunting as graphs. He describes the government

well as by agriculture. and people as “the least bad this side Perhaps the most interesting object unof Mars"-i. e., they are not perfect,

earthed from the Paint Creek village-but no others are as good. The rela- certainly the most interesting from the tively enormous public debt, $300 for historical and geographic points of each man, woman, or child, a per capita view-is the piece of chain mail illusdebt which in this country would amount

trated in the volume, but unfortunately to twenty-two billion dollars, and the since lost. The definite origin of this consequently decreasing birth rate are relic of early Caucasian exploration is two grave facts which Mr. Lloyd over- not known, but as the field of Professor looks.

Udden's researches was unquestionably

a part of the Province of Quivira, which An Old Indian Village. By Johan the famous expedition of Francisco VasAugust Udden. Augustana Library

quez Coronado penetrated in 1541, and Publications, No. 2. Rock Island, which led to similar expeditions into the Illinois, 1900.

same locality during the succeeding half Although the author of this inter

century, the relic is in all likelihood of esting brochure lays no claim to special Spanish origin. skill in archæology, his work may well The Province of Quivira was inhabited serve as a model to local archæologists in the sixteenth century by the Wichita throughout the great area covered by Indians, who later occupied an extensive the Mississippi drainage system.

area southward in the present Oklahoma, The scene of the explorations con- whence the name of the Wichita Mounducted by Professor Udden at intervals tains and of Washita River. They were during seven years from 1881 is Paint the only Indians of the plains who lived Creek valley, a mile and a half south of in grass houses (such as Coronado's Smoky Hill River, in McPherson County, chroniclers describe as having been seen Kansas. The village remains consisted in the Quivira region), the Pawnees ocof fifteen low circular mounds from cupying earth lodges, and other plains twenty to twenty-five feet in diameter, tribes portable tipis of buffalo hide. We without particular order of arrangement may therefore assume that the Paint and covering an area of about twenty Creek village was inhabited by the cornacres. The average height of the raising and buffalo-hunting Wichitas, as mounds is about two feet, while some the relics would seem to show, and probrise only very slightly above the sur- ably during the Coronado period, or at face of the prairie.

any rate during the time of one of the Excavation revealed axes, hammers, immediately succeeding Spanish expedi

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