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constitution, like yours, decrees that tinually improving and multiplying the tlie judicial authorities must be elected means of instruction. by popular vote, and these elections are To make good teachers and to imheld in the most tranquil way. My own press unity of method there are normal personal opinion is against this manner schools for men and women. In the of appointing judges and magistrates, normal school for women in the City of as I do not think popularity is always Mexico there are actually more than the best qualification for the sacred du- 1,600 girls who want to adopt the noble ties of a judge.

profession of teachers. Another excelThe importance of public education lent normal school exists in the State of is fully appreciated by the Federal and Vera Cruz, and there are others in other State authorities, and there is a com- States, but I have 110 data at hand conplete system derived from the study by cerning them. competent persons of the methods fol- For professional instruction there are, lowed in foreign countries. The Fed- principally in the Federal districts, eral government has not only adopted schools of jurisprudence, engineering the systems considered the best, but in all its branches, commerce, agriculhas appointed boards of education to ture, arts and trades, fine arts, one give to public education an impetus in conservatory of music, and for all avothe right direction and to make it wi- cations required by the actual state of form in the Republic.

sciences and arts, and the government In 1898 the number of schools in the is continually giving to each one of Republic was 12,358, and of this mum- them all means conducive to perfect inber 6,738 were supported by Federal struction, beginning with a comfortable and State authorities, 2,953 by munici- and hygienic building. The one, for palities, and 2,667 by private parties instance, in use by the school of arts The average monthly attendance of and trades for women has been extended pupils was 556,009. The expense of because the actual attendance is more the established schools supported by the than 1,000. authorities amounted to $5,980, 180.72, The number of public libraries in 1898 not including, the schools kept by pri- was 139. The national library of the capvate parties, of which I have no infor- ital last year added to its cataloglie nearly mation. If we as a point of com- 10,000 volumes by purchase and 9,500 parison the cost of the schools paid by volumes by the donation of Mrs. Ysabel the authorities, we can calculate very Pesado de Mier, widow of our late and approximately that $7,000,000 were ex- lamented minister to the French Repubpended for public education in Mexico lic, Mr. Antonio de Mier y Celis, my in that year.

The number of schools dear friend, and one of the best and for girls was 3,296; for boys, 6,813, most patriotic citizens Mexico has ever and mixed, 2,249. This total has cer

produced. taiuly increased since then.

The number of museums in the RepubThe attendance of pupils increases lie is about 30.

.

The National Museum very rapidly year after year, and I was of the capital, the richest of all, received agreeably surprised, when visiting my last year valuable additions in the accountry after an absence of many years, quisition of a collection of archeological to observe the wonderful results attained pieces from the State of Michoacan, a by our educational system. There is collection of antique objects from the yet much to be done, but what has been Isthmus of Teluantepec, and fac-similes already accomplished is truly surpris- of the codices existing in the European ing, and the board of education is con- libraries relative to our history, donated

by the Bishop of Tehuantepec and the duction, which is subject to many acciDric de Loubat.

dents and unforeseen circumstances that The newspapers published during that diminish or stop suddenly the output of year numbered 533, and of that total 153 a silver mine. Our mining enterprises were published in the City of Mexico, are not now confined to silver and gold, among them being daily, weekly, but in the mining of many other metals, monthly, and quarterly journals. Very such as copper, antimony, lead, and few, fortunately, were exclusively given mercury, large capital is employed. to politics, the rest to the exposition and Our exports of copper in the last discussion of science, industry, com- financial year amounted to nearly teni merce, agriculture, jurisprudence, medi- millions of dollars. Some of our mineralcine, political economy, mining and melting establishments have disposed civil engineering, military art, etc. of the following quantities :

These few facts, rapidly enumerated, Campañía Metalurgica Mexicana de will give some idea of the real state of San Luis Potosí, from December, 1896, the public education in Mexico.

to September 30, 1900, 332,358 tons. Passing to our Department of Im- Grau Fundición Central de Aguasprovements, Commerce, and Industry, calientes, from December, 1896, to Ocetc., our mining industry is the most tober, 1900, 625,855 tons. important in every respect and deserves Compañía del “ Boleo" baja Calito be mentioned first. The number of fornia, in the years from 1896 to the end mineral properties at the end of last of 1899, 40,422 tons. year was 12,304, covering an area of A department of vital importance to 128,380 hectares, the equivalent of us is that of colonization. Formerly nearly 320,000 acres, besides six exten- the government made some efforts in sive zones in the States of Sonora, this direction, and we now have 29 colChihuahua, and Michoacan and in the onies in steady progress, 13 established territory of Lower California, which directly by the government and 16 by were rented to parties under contracts private companies. Experience has made by the Executive and approved taught us, howerer, that it is better to by the Federal Congress for the work- leave this matter to private enterprises, ing of all mines that may be discovered and the only positive aid given by the in these tracts of land.

government is the tranquillity, security, The yield of our silver mines in the and incessant and rapid progress of the four years from 1892 to 1896 was $225,- whole Republic. When these advan247 459, or a yearly average of $56,- tageous conditions become universally 301,864. During the four years 1896- known the current of immigration will 1900 the production was $274,370,157,

flow into Mexico, where nobody can a yearly average of $68,592,540. Our starve, where the poorest, with some production of gold is also increasing. exertion, can arrive at a comfortable From 1892-1896 it was $14,123,876, situation-the middle class become rich and from 1896-1900, $31,108,425—that and the rich can increase their capital is, the output more than doubled dur- by millions ; and all this with a beautiing the last four years.

ful climate, salubrious everywhere, exIn the production of silver from 1899 cept on the coasts, and among a peaceto 1900 there was a decline of more than ful, industrious people, who have well two millions of dollars, but General earned the reputation of being one of Diaz explains the cause very satisfacto- the most courteous and hospitable uponi rily by recalling the instability of pro- the face of the earth.

(To be continued in the May number)

GEOGRAPHIC NOTES

TH

TH

OFFICIAL INFORMATION RE- and Cables" in the Philippines shows LATING TO THE PHILIPPINES all lines laid by the corps up to Feb

ruary 1, 1901. The lower hali of Luzon HE State Department has recently

is now covered with a network of wire, published three handsome vol- while two trunk lines penetrate to the umes on the Philippine Islands. The extreme north end of the island. The first two volumes are a history of Spanish islands of Panay, Cebu, Negros, Leyte,

, work in the archipelago, with a cyclopedic

and Bohol each have several hundreds statement of the resources of the islands. of miles of wire, constructed by the The different peoples, their means of corps, and are con cted by military livelihood, their customs, and character

cables. There are now in operation in are sympathetically portrayed by the the islands 9,000 miles of wire and 400 editors, Rev. José Algué and the Jesuit miles of cable. . Fathers of Manila. The third volume These maps may be obtained by reis an atlas of about 60 colored maps.

sponsible persons gratis. This atlas is the most comprehensive statement of what is known of the geography of the islands ever published. THE CENSUS OF INDIA The collection of the material has been the work of generations of the Jesuits, THE census of India, taken March 1, but under the Spanish régime want of 1901, gives the population of that money had prevented the publication vast country as 294, 266,000, au actual of the mass of facts obtained. The increase of only 1.49 per cent during map-makers of the U. S. Coast and ten years, while during the preceding Geodetic Survey have systematized the decade the increase was 11.2 per cent. material which the Jesuits supplied. The population in 1891 was 287,Volumes I and II are in Spanish and 717,000, but as certain tracts are inillustrated with very good pictures. cluded in the census of 1901 that were The set of three volumes may be ob- not enumerated in 1891, the net increase tained from the State Department by is only 4,283,069. In numbers India the payment of $20.

has thus added to her population less The Reports of the Taft Philippine than one-third of what the United States Commission, which form a volume of have gained, though the former has 600 pages, may now be obtained from four times the population of the latterthe State Department gratis.

an increase of four millions as against Thie War Department has recently thirteen millions for the United States. issued a large map of Luzon on the The reasons of this small increase in scale of 10 miles to the inch.

the figures are two: first, the terrible bodies all the latest information received ravages of the plague for four consecuby the department from its officers and tive years in the Bombay Presidency agents in the islands. The department

The department and the two great famines of 1896-'97 has also printed a third and revised and 1899-1900, and, second, the greater edition of the large map of the archi- accuracy with which the work of the pelago based on the map of Montero Y. census has been performed. Gay, first published in Madrid.

The population of British India has The latest edition of the “ Progress increased considerably, while in the Map of Signal Corps Telegraph Lines Native States it has fallen off. British

It eml

States, 63.181,000 against 66,059,092 Ho Contributing to the New York

476

871

Iudia now numbers 231,085,000 against GEN. FOSTER ON MEXICO 221,266,000 in 1891, and the Native

ONJOHN in 1891. It is yet too early to analyze the returns for the Native States, but

Tribune a series of very pointed papers there would appear to be an excessive on the condition of Mexico of today. decline in the birth rate.

General Foster began his distinguished The following table gives the popula- diplomatic career in 1873 as the United tion in thousands, the third column States Minister to Mexico, where he showing the percentage of increase or represented his nation for seven years. decrease:

Until this winter he had not revisited

the country in the twenty years since his British Territory.

Percent| 1901. 1891.

recall. In the meantime he has been age.

the United States minister to the courts

of Russia and Spain, and held the high-, Ajmere.

}

542

12.17 Marwar

est diplomatic office in the United States, Assam,

that of Secretary of State. 6,122 5,433, + 12.67 Bengal 74,713 71,346 + 4.72

Instead of geographic isolation, MexBerar..

1,491 2,897

4.99

ico is now bound to the United States by Bombay 15.330 15,957 3.93

the iron ties of four railroads, while many Sind..

3,212 2,871 | + 11.88 Aden..

steamship lines ply between Vera Cruz

41 44 6.48 Upper Burma. 3,749 3,362 i + 14.49

and foreign ports, Security of life and Lower Burma.

5,371 4.408 ! +. 21.84 property is now assured. The evidences Ceutral provinces.. 9,845 10,784

of progress and prosperity are seen on Coorg ..

170 173+ 4.28 Madras..

Mexico, the capital city, 38,208 35,630 + 7.24

every hand. Northwest provinces. 34,812 34,253 + 1.63

has doubled in numbers, and in its conOudh 12,884 12,650 + 2.40

veniences and wealth-bringing attracPunjab.

22,449 20,766 + 7.58 tions may vie with the great cities of the Baluchistan 810

continent. Andamans.. 24 15 + 56.95

In its foreign relations Mexico has Total... 231,085 221,266 + 4 44 risen to a position of dignity and gained

the respect of all nations. “A marked

feature of the recent diplomatic relaNative States.

tions of Mexico has been the extension Haidarabad I1,174' 11,537 3.14

of these relations to the Far East. SevBaroda.

1,936

2,415 19.23 eral years ago a treaty of amity and Mysore..

4,943 + 12.

commerce was effected with Japan, and Kashmir

2,906 2,543' + 14.24 Rajputana ..

9,841 12,016

18. 1

missions are now maintained at the two Central India. 8,501 | 10,318 | — 17.5

capitals of both governments. Last year Bombay

6,891 8,059 14.49 a similar treaty of a very liberal characMadras..

4,190 3,700 + 13.23 Central provinces.

ter was signed at Washington by the 1,983 Bengal.

3,735
3,296 + 13.33

Mexican Ambassador and the Chinese Northwest provinces. 799 792! + .91 Minister. By it Chinese laborers are Punjab..

4,263 + 4.12 admitted into the country, and they are Burma 1,228

already coming, especially to the Pacific Total Native States. 63,181 : 66,050

Coast, in considerable numbers, and by 4.34

their industrious and persistent habits Total all India. ... 294,266 287,317 + 2.42 are making themselves felt as an impor

tant element of the country.” * No comparison possible.

To the able management of affairs by

5,538

2,160 |

8.19

4,438

*

*

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President Diaz Mr. Foster attributed 1862, 25 years after her accession, and the prosperity of the country. The from east to west by Colonel Warburton result of the President's good judgment till 1873, 36 years after her accession. is especially evident in the present Huc, the explorer of Tibet ; Pumpelly confidence in the financial condition of and Richthofen, pioneers in China, and the country, both official and private. Nevelskoy, who ascended the Amur from The revenues which before (the elec- the sea, gained their fame within Viction of General Diaz) had heen barely toria's reign. Frémont, Powell, Dall$20,000,000 annually, soon doubled, names illustrious in the exploration of then trebled, and withiu ten years had the American continent-also did their increased more than sixfold, reaching as work since 1837. high as $120,000,000.”

From her accession Victoria was This increase made possible the aban- Patron of the Royal Geographical Sodonment of the old system of taxation ciety, and to her encouragement are due of goods passing from state to state and many of the great enterprises planned of taxes collected at the city gates on and successfully carried out by the Soall articles of consumption entering the ciety. She was ready also to reward the

. city. By this reduction in the branches work of British explorers. James Ross, of taxation the national revenues have Leopold McClintock, John Franklin, diminished to $60,000,000, which is suf- Samuel Baker, Robert Schomburgk, ficient for all the current needs of the Henry M. Stanley, and others, she government, and yields a surplus to be knighted in recognition of their achieveexpended for special purposes.

ments, The Founder's Medal and the The entire indebtedness of the Repub- Patron's Medal, awarded annually by lic amounts to about $177,178,000, borne the Royal Geographical Society, were by about 13,570,000 souls. Mexico's granted by her. debt per capita is thus only $13, while that of Canada is $71.

PHENOMENAL INCREASE IN

POPULATION OF ITALY
EXPLORATION DURING VIC-
TORIA'S REIGN

HE population of Italy has prac

tically doubled in the last twenty

years, a rate of increase that surpasses able article shows that nearly all that of all nations of Europe and even the enormous advances in geographic the United States. This, too, notknowledge during the past too years withstanding the burdens of excessive

100 were made during Queen Victoria's taxation, that would tend to diminish reign. In 1837 Livingstone was at- the birth rate. The last census was tending medical and Greek classes in

taken twenty years ago, in 1881, and Glasgow, and Stanley had not been showed a population of 21,000,000. born. Victoria had reigned 16 years According to the census taken early before McClure, in 1853, attained the

this year the population 11ow numbers Northwest Passage, and 43 years be- 35,000,000. It is safe to estinate the fore Nordenskjold, in 1880, solved the number of emigrants during the twenty problem of the Northeast Passage. Sir years as at least 5,000,000, so that James Ross, Wilkes, Weddell, and the increase by birth has been about D'Urville all won their Antarctic laurels

20,000,000. It has taken the United within her reign. Australia was not States thirty years, aided by 12,000,000 crossed from north to south by Stuart till immigrants, to double its numbers.

A

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