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from populous activity to utter desert so ful latitudes without serious detriment ; complete as that of the zone trodden by the missionaries and couriers followed padre Kino and five generations of fol- tribesmen's trails to tribal domiciles, lowers—and the lapse seems the greater and shared water and food with or withbecause so uncharacteristic of occidental out material exchange; their animals progress.

found forage in grassy and shrubby There was reason enough for the spots, while they were able to take abandonment of the old route as a line game or gather cactus fruits in season of travel and traffic; theincreasing safety with little effort; and so long as they of shipping first invaded its claims, the were few, the vital balance established partition of Mexico next curtailed its through eons of earth-making was little functions, and the railways spanning disturbed. With the third or fourth the continent finally tapped its reser- generation and the gradually increasing voirs at both termini ; yet the factors numbers of Caucasian travelers, the releading to the abandonment of the route sources began to suffer ; the forage grew only partially explain the desertion of scant, the wantonly harried cacti withits purlieus, and serve rather to fix at- drew from the nearer borders, the big tention on the fact that the entire zone game became wary and betook to other traversed by the trail was gradually ranges ; with the decimation of plants impoverished by the long-continued-- and the trampling of stock the soil grew and short-sighted-overtaxing of its less retentive of the scant moisture, in mea ger resources. When tlie earliest a ratio probably higher than that followCaucasian pioneers came, they found the ing deforestation of humid lands, so that province peopled sparsely with semi-mi- the meager ground-water disappeared, gratory Papago Indians, who wandered the smaller springs went dry, and the afar in search of water, located fields aud chance tempest brought bane rather than villages even by the temporary wettings the boon of the olden time ; and with of chance storms, and erected shrines each decade of vital degradation the about the more permanent springs and Papago tribesmen withdrew to remoter tinajas—Tinajas Altas among others. haunts, or else degenerated into a paraThey also found a fauna of deer and sitical dependence on the wells and antelope and bighorn with their car

wastage of the whites. Still the natniverous consociates, as well as birds, ural balance was not utterly destroyed rodents, reptiles, and insects in wide until the Anglo-Saxon came with that variety and moderate abundance ; and intense energy which balks at no obstaas the basis of the motile life they found cle, brooks no delay; he deepened old a varied flora delicately balanced be- wells and dug new to catch the last drops tween hard habitat and dependent fauna of dwindling ground-water; he not only through eons of adjustment. True, the drove herds to devastate the enfeebled aggregate vitality was but a fraction of flora along the way, but stocked the adthat characteristic of humid lands; yet jacent ranges with cattle and sheep to the deficiency was partly made up by a supply the needs of multiplying travel ; longer individual life and a closer vital and he stopped only at the fortunate economy growing out of the exception- conjunction of railway-making on more ally perfect solidarity characteristic of northerly lines with the utter eradicathe living things of arid regions, so that tion of the grasses and other forage the sum of living resources was suffi- plants along the old route, and the concient for reasonable demands. Two or sequent extinction of the useful fauna three generations of Caucasians drew on and destruction of the minor waters. these resources in the easy way of rest- The American desert stands apart from

[graphic]

“Plaius still mantled with lierbage and grazed by herds of deer as in pre-Columbian times"

a

that of the Old World in superior vital- from age to age the forms and forces of ity; with corresponding conditions of animal and vegetal life coöperated in climate and soil, a peculiar flora of leaf- common strife against sun and sand, less, thorny, waxy-skinned, light-utiliz- and were forced by the hard environing forms, and a distinctive fauna take ment into a liarmonious interrelation in the place of lifeless sand, and the char- which none could dominate without risk acteristics of fauna and flora combine of starvation, none yield unduly withwith several lines of geologic evidence out certainty of extinction. Into this to prove that the arid provinces grew complex mechanism the prehistoric forslowly during several periods, running bears of the Papago insinuated themat least from the early Neocene to the selves so gently as scarce to disturb the present. It was during these periods relations of parts ; into the same mechthat the unparalleled solidarity of our anism the Papago themselves pushed desert life was gradually developed ;* their way harmlessly when driven into

the outer deserts ; but the natural inter*As pointed out elsewhere, this solidarity matured on certain lines in agriculture and

relations were too delicate to witlistand concomitant zoöculture in the very province

the violent entry of the Anglo-Saxon, traversed by the ancient route. Ci. “The

and the weaker organisms withered beBeginning of Agriculture,” American Anthropologist, vol. VIII, 1895, pp. 350-375 ; “ The

fore him. Other provinces have suffered Beginning of Zoöculture,' ibid., vol. x, 1897,

from the brash vigor of Caucasian conpp. 215-230.

quest ; forests have been sacrificed and woodlands despoiled into sterile wastes; donment of the country along the hisfields have been ill-wrought into barren- toric route; and this failure at once ness and then turned out to wash into attests the folly of disregarding natural neighboring waterways, thereby ruin- conditions when settlement is pushed ing both hill and dale ; mines and quar- into unfamiliar regions, and indicates ries have been so unwisely worked as to the wisdom of weighing natural condicheck other industries for decades and tions as means of nature-conquest. The entail public losses far exceeding per- natural potentiality of the country travsonal gains. In legion ways the adjust- ersed by the old trail is proved by the ment of American settlers to new en- condition of the neighboring plaius on vironments has been destructive, yet 110 the southern side of the Sonoran boundnew contacts have been more disastrous ary which have never been overstockedthan those between the pioneers from plains still mantled with herbage and humid fatherlands and the finely-bal- grazed by herds of deer as in pre-Columanced vital solidarities of arid regions ; bian times; and the slow resetting of and of all the examples of destructive shrubbery along the old way gives deficontact between pioneers and precursors nite promise of restoration to the early none are more impressive than those state, while the moderate fruitfulness of so clearly attested by the Old Yuma the Sonoran plains points a way in which Trail.

the growing resources may be utilized Happily, the dark lines of the picture by patient adjustment of industries to carry a brighter complement: Science- natural conditions. and American progress is but science So the wisdom, if not the imperative practically applied-advances through necessity, of adjusting means to condiexperiences, both of success and failure; tions in the reclamation of arid lands is no success could be more instructive the leadling lesson of the Old Yuma than the failure attested by the aban- Trail.

ADVANCES IN GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY*

By Brig.-GEN. A. W. GREELY, CHIEF SIGNAL OFFICER,

U. S. ARMY

I

N these days geographic exploration In forecasting the evolution of any

means not merely the topographic aspect of the twentieth century the

distribution of mountain or river, soundest base must be the advances of of lake or plain, but also the determina- the nineteenth century along like lines tion, in a cursory manner at least, of of research. Judged by this standard, existent vegetable and animal life, of the present century will perfect the aspiclimatic conditions, and especially of the rations of the explorer of the last century ethnology of inhabited areas.

to make known the entire surface of the * Revised and republished by courtesy of

earth. Few appreciate the enormous adthe publishers of the New York Tribune. vances in geographic knowledge during the last one hundred years, which Other notable advances have been may be summed up in the general state- made in Arctic America by Inglefield, ment that fully 60 per cent of the world's Kane, Hall, Nares, and Greely in Grinland area was unexplored in 1800, while nell Land and Northwest Greenland ; scarcely 10 per cent now remains un- by Dry galski, Geisecke, Garde, Holm, known.

Steenstrup, and other Danes in Western At the commencement of the last cen- Greenland ; by Scoresby, Graah, Koldetury the four greatest geographic prob- wey, Payer, Nordenskjold, Garde, Clalems were the Northeast Passage, the vering, Holm, Ryder, and Peary on the Northwest Passage, the sources of the east coast, while Nansen and Peary have Nile, and the North Polar quest ; the crossed the inland ice, the latter to the last only remains.

extreme southeastern point of the new

land to the north of Greenland, discovONE ARCTIC PROBLEM SOLVED ered by Greely in 1882.

The Northwest Passage first yielded ADVANCES TOWARD THE NORTH its secrets to the energetic explorers of

POLE this age, the result being attained by a series of voyages, almost entirely under Spitzbergen has been fully explored by British auspices, that are unsurpassed Gaimard, Nordenskjold, Torrell, Leigh in number, duration, and heroism. At- Smith, and Conway. Weyprecht and tempts for a Northwest Passage, inter- Payer discovered Franz Josef Land, rupted by the death of the great naviga- whose limits have been extended and tor, James Cook, who lost his life therein, defined by Leigh Smith, Jackson, Vanwere renewed owing to the success of seni, and Wellman. De Long drifted William Scoresby, Jr., in exploring East from Bering Strait to the New Siberian Greenland, 1817-'22. Prosecuted both Islands, and Nansen's extraordinary by land and sea, material advances came continuation of De Long's drift around through Parry, Ross, and Franklin, Spitzbergen has most materially ad1819–'35, while the voyages of Austin, vanced our knowledge of the Siberian Belcher, Collinson, McClintock, Mc- and Polar Seas. Clure, Rae, and others in search of Advances toward the North Pole have Franklin, 1845-'59, completely solved been made through the exertions of the mystery.

Scoresby, 81 degrees 30 minutes north ; Parry, in three notable voyages, ex- Parry, 82 degrees 45 minutes north ; plored the greater part of the islands and Nares, 83 degrees 20 minutes north ; waterways north of America half way Greely, 83 degrees 24 minutes north (the from Baffin Bay to Bering Strait, pass- most northerly land as yet); Nansen, S6 ing north of the magnetic pole. John degrees 14 minutes north, and Abruzzi, Ross explored the Felix Boothia Penin- 86 degrees 33 minutes north, within 207 sula, the north point of the continent geographic miles of the Pole. of America, while his lieutenant and As to the Northeast Passage, Nornephew, James C. Ross, located the denskjold, having faith in both its sciennorth magnetic pole at Cape Adelaide, tific value and practicability, selected 70 degrees 5 minutes nortli, 96 degrees Palander as his navigator. Sailing 44 minutes west. The north coasts of from Tromsö in 1878, they passed Kara America were outlined by the land jour- Sea successfully and readily rounded neys of Franklin, Beechey, Dease, and the north cape of Asia. Beset by ice Simpson, 1819-'46, from King William and obliged to winter within 120 miles Land west to Point Barrow.

of Bering Strait, Nordenskjold completed the circumnavigation of Asia in and later by commercial extensions and 1879.

gold-hunting. New Guinea has been Within the Antarctic circle, to the explored in the last half century by south of Patagonia, Palmer, Belling. Wallace, Meyer, Forbes, Von Schleinitz, hausen, Biscoe, Larsen, and Gerlache and Dallmann. discovered Palmer Land and adjacent islands. To the south of New Zealand OPENING UP SOUTH AMERICA Belleny found islands, and James C. Ross added to his arctic laurels by discovering Of the Americas, the longest known ice-clad Victoria Land, with its flaming is least explored. South America, howvolcanoes, and in locating the south mag- ever, was fortunate in the beginning of netic pole. South of Kerguelen is the the century, 1799–1804, with such inEnderby Land of Biscoe, while south- vestigators as Humboldt and Bonpland, east of Tasmania an archipelago of des- who traversed Venezuela, determined olate islands, located by Wilkes and the remarkable bifurcation of the OriD'Urville, marks the northern limit of n1oco, visited Magdalena, Quito, and the ice-clad Antarctica.

volcanoes. This journey was not only

locally important, for it gave an extraEXPLORATION OF AUSTRALIA ordinary impulse to the comprehensive

study of the earth. Von Eschwege, The greatest southern confederacy, l'on Wied, Saint-Hillaire, Spix, and Australia, has a European population. Martius explored the interior of Brazil exceeding five millions ; but in 1800 from the Amazon Basin ; D'Orbigny its two thousand settlers did not even and Castelnau devoted themselves to the have a country with a recognized name. geography of the central regions beAs New Holland, it appeared on the tween the Rio de la Plata and the Amabest maps, a featureless central area, zon ; Darwin, Wilkes, and Gillis exwith its outlined coast largely con- plored the coast lines of the continent ; jectural. Surveys of the coast, begun Wallace and Bates did wonderful scienby Bass and Flinders, were finished by tific work in the Amazon Basin, followed King, 1822 ; Wickham and Stokes, by Agassiz and a host of other explorers. 1837-'43. Inland, Hughes solved the Of the tributary basins of the Amazon, hydrographic problem of the Murray Steinen has mapped the Xingu, Church watershed, Eyre traced the south coast the Madeira, Chandless and Labre the along the Great Australian Bight. The Purus. central desert was made known by In the Guianas Schomburgk's reMitchell and Sturt, while Grey and searches are the most valuable. In late. Gregory explored in the northwest and years the most important explorations Leichardt and Kennedy in the northeast. are doubtless those of the French interThe most fruitful journey was that of national polar expedition at Cape Horni, Stuart, 1858-'62, from the inhabited under Martial. south coast to the extreme north, which opened a fertile, well-watered district to PATHMAKERS IN NORTH AMERICA colonization. The western desert has been explored here and there by Forrest, Of the coutinents none other has so Warburton, and Giles, the last named benefited by the explorations of last cenhaving twice traversed the great Salara, tury as North America. To the genius, east and west.

tact, and energy of Humboldt was early New Zealand first came to our knowl- (1801) due modern geographical knowledge by missionary labors, 1814-'30, edge of Spanish America, which was

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