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GEOGRAPHIC LITERATURE

The Century Atlas of the World. Pre- Moore's Meteorological Almanac and

pared under the superintendence of Weather Guide. By Prof. Willis L. Benjamin E. Smith. New York : Moore, LL. D., Chief of United States The Century Co., 1899. $7.50.

Weather Bureau. With illustrations The Century Atlas, which was first and 32 charts, pp. 128. Chicago and published in 1897, and followed by a New York : Rand, McNally & Co., second edition in 1899, has doubtless 1901. $0.25. been consulted at various times by every Unlike the traditional almanac that is reader of this Magazine. A review or crammed with queer statements and notice of the Atlas would now be super- queer dates, this little book is a reserfluous. The publishers, however, have voir of reliable information for “the made such a generous proposition to the farmer, the horticulturist, the shipper, members of the National Geographic the mariner, the merchant, the tourist, Society, and to the members of one or the health-seeker, and for those who two other scientific bodies in the United wish to learn the art of weather foreStates, that the great value of the work casting.' should again be emphasized.

Perhaps the most interesting and valuThe Atlas was originally published as able chapter is that on the construca separate volume to enable subscribers tion and the use of the weather map,” to the Century Dictionary to complete which explains how an amateur, by their sets. Of the edition a few hun- consulting the government daily weather dred copies remain. These the pub- chart, can follow the track of storms, and lishers have offered to members of the with considerable accuracy forecast the National Geographic Society at one-half weather. The difference between the the original price ($7.50 instead of $15). cyclone and the tornado, terins usually The Atlas will not be sold separately as

used as synonymous, is emphasized in soon as these copies are disposed of, and another chapter. “The cyclone is a can then be obtained only by purchasing horizontally revolving disk of air coverthe entire set of 10 volumes that com- ing an area 1,000 to 2,000 miles in diamprise “The Century Dictionary and eter, while the tornado is a revolving Cyclopedia.”

mass of air of only 100 to 1,000 feet in The Atlas contains un double-page diameter, and is simply an incident of maps, 138 inset maps, and 43 histor- the cyclone.” Prof. Moore states, under ical and astronomical maps. There are the subject of “Protection against nearly 200,000 references to places in Frost," that, in his opinion, with apthe indexes. To each of the principal proved appliances, the fruit districts of States two or three maps are allotted, California and the orange groves of showing all the rivers, lakes, and hills Florida could secure material protection in great detail. Maps of the large cities against frost. Other instructive chapwith their environs are presented, and ters are : Long-range Forecasts, the harbors of great seaports are also “ The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, clearly charted. In its foreign maps

“Loss of Life and Property by Lightthe Century Atlas excels, the maps of ning, · Weather Bureau Kites," and China and the Far East being especially “ Temperatures Injurious to Food Provaluable.

ducts."

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL

GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

Popular Meetings.

ciency was common to both cities and

small towns and even to exposed points February 1, 1901.-President Graham

on the sea coast. It was probably due Bell in the chair. Señor Dr. Don Juan in part to a shifting in latitude of the N. Navarro, Mexican Consul General in

paths of storms and to a diminution in New York city, delivered an illustrated

the number of tropical disturbances arisaddress, “ Mexico of Today." February 15, 1901.-Vice-President ing in the Gulf of Mexico or advancing

toward the southern coast of the United W J McGee in the chair. Mr. Oscar T'.

States from the Caribbean. Crosby delivered an illustrated address,

Prof. Willis L. Moore called attention "Explorations in Abyssinia in 1900.'

to the very great paucity of meteorolog

ical records and the exceedingly short Technical Meetings.

time that such records had been collJanuary 25, 1901.-President Graham tinued. We should have, he said, at Bell in the chair. Prof. Alfred J. Henry, least a hundred years' observations beof the United States Weather Bureau, fore we could hope to account for such read

paper on the anomalous distribu- marked variations as had been described. tion of rainfall in the Gulf and South Mr. N. H. Darton read a paper entiAtlantic States during the eleven years tled “The Powder River Range in East1889-1899. Ordinarily, Professor Henry eru Wyoming." The title of Mr. A. C. said, years of fat and lean rainfall follow Spencer's paper was “A High Plateau each other in a very irregular procession. in the Copper River Region of Alaska," A single dry year may be followed by a an interesting description of certain second and even a third, but rarely by physiographic features of that section of a fourth. Wet years likewise may occur Alaska. In“ The Distribution of Trees in groups, but the number of years in a and Shrubs in Alaska," by F. V. Coville, group seldom exceed three.

the speaker traced the zones of plant life In the case to which attention was in Alaska and gave several possible exparticularly called eleven consecutive planations of the strange absence of dry years were experienced. The an- vegetation on the Aleutian Islands. nual deficiency at the several stations February 8, 1901.-President Graham varied largely. In some years it was Bell in the chair. Prof. Frank H. Bigenot more than 10 per cent of the mean low read a paper entitled “The Plateau annual fall; in others it was as much as Barometry of the United States," the first 50 per cent. Happily the mean annual public announcement of an important fall in the region referred to is so great work that the Weather Bureau hias been that an annual deficit of 50 per cent does prosecuting during the last two years. not create serious alarm.

The reduction of barometric readDr. H. C. Frankenfield inquired ings of pressure, taken at the stations whether the deficiency in large cities on the Rocky Mountain Plateau to the was due to general causes or to steadily sea-level, has been a problem of special growing artificial conditions, such as the importance to the Weather Bureau, oni increased use of electrical appliances ? account of their employment in formProfessor Henry replied that the defi- ing daily weather charts. It is also one

1

of much scientific difficulty, because Mr. E. C. Barnard presented a plan of
of some uncertainty in the elevation of work in exploratory surveys.
the stations, and the proper temperature
argument to be used in making the nec

Announcement of Meetings.
essary reductions. With the lapse of
time the necessary observations have March 1.—“The Recent Famine in
accumulated to such an extent that it India," by Gilson Willetts.
has become desirable to reduce the entire March 15.-" The Two Ends of the
series taken during the past 30 years to Earth : Peary and the North Pole, and
a homogeneous system, with the epoch the Cruise of the Belgica in the Ant-
January 1, 1900. Professor Bigelow arctics," by H. L. Bridgman and Fred-
has been conducting this research for erick A. Cook.
the past two years, and the work is now March 29.—“Railways and Water-
approaching completion.

ways of the Russian Empire," by AlexThe present investigation has included ander Hume Ford. a complete remodeling of the station These meetings will be held in the elevation data ; the reduction of all the Congregational church, Tenth and G pressures to a normal station pressure, streets northwest, at 8 p. m. which has never been done before, by the application of a system of corrections for elevation, gravity, instrumental error, Technical meetings for the reading of and diurnal variation ; the careful de- papers and for discussion will be held termination of the temperature gradients in the hall of the Cosmos Club Friday in latitude, longitude, and altitude; the evenings, March 8 and 23, at 8 p. m. reduction to sea-level by new tables ; the determination of residuals due to local abnormalities, to inaccurate eleva- As previously announced, the subject tions, and to incomplete series of obser- of the afternoon series of lectures for vations, as for those of only a few years' this year is “ The Countries of Asia." duration, and the further correction of The dates and lecturers are as follows: the station pressures to a homogeneous March 5.-“ Western Asia,” by Talnormal system.

cott Williams, LL. D., of the PhiladelThis work will also contain normal phia Press. maps of pressure, temperature, and vapor March 12.—“Eastern Asia (China)." tension on the three following planes: Name of lecturer to be announced later. sea-level, 3,500 feet, and 10,000 feet. March 20.—“Southern Asia (India)." From these data it will be practicable, in Name of lecturer to be announced later. connection with the gradients obtained March 26.-“Northern Asia (Sibefrom the International Cloud Observa- ria),” by Edwin A. Grosvenor, Profestories, to make good daily weather maps sor of Modern Governments in Amherst on the three planes above mentioned, College. and thus to provide further means of April 2.-"Asia- The Cradle of Hustudying the behavior of storms and the manity,” by W J McGee, Vice-Presiatmospheric circulation generally, at dent of the National Geographic Society. other levels than that of the sea, to These lectures will be given in the which the forecaster is at present con- Columbia Theatre, Twelfth and F fined for his predictions.

streets northwest, at 4.20 p. 11.

THE
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
MAGAZINE

THE OLD YUMA TRAIL

By W J McGee, VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL

GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY

T:

HE distinctive part of the Old approach lies through the ancient city

Yuma Trail lies between So- of Tucson and by Coyote spring (at the noyta (long. 112° 50') and

'

northern end of Sierra Baboquivari) to Sierra Gila (long. 114° 05'), the south- the main trail anywhere east of Santa westernmost range of Arizona ; be- Rosa, and thence to Sonoyta. Froni tween these points it nearly coincides this oasis westward there is but a single with the international boundary. East way to Tinajas Altas, near the southern of the old-time Place of Corn there are end of Sierra Gila; but there the tracks several tributary trails. The ancient

The ancient diverge, one distributary leading down

, and modern pilgrimage-path leads west- the northeastern side of the range to ward from Baboquirari Peak (long. 11° Rio Gila, another through a neighboring 40') to a capricious watering place at pass and thence directly northwestward the southern end of Santa Rosa Mount- to Yuma, with a third (theoretically at ains (long. 112° 30'), and thence on to least; the way is practically impassSonoyta ; the early Mexican route led able save by well-equipped expeditions) through Magdalena and Santa Ana, and across the drifting sands stretching to thence through Altar and over the plains Rio Colorado at the point touched by to the Santa Rosa water; the later the Arizona-Sonora boundary. Mexican approach (afterward adopted The Santo Domingo of today stands by many American pioneers) can be on the site of the wooden cross erected traced through Fronteras to the old by the padres over two centuries ago. mission of Tubac, and thence through It is a feudal Mexican village of the Arivaca and Sasabe to a practically per- type prevailing in the remoter districts.

. manent water at the southern end of Owned and governed (with constant Sierra Baboquivari (Poso Verde), and fealty to the distant but beloved Presion over the plains now intersected by dente and the inuch-adored Carmencita, the boundary to Santa Rosa and So- who is to Mexico what Victoria was to noyta ; while an alternative American Britain) by Don Cipriano Ortega, it com

converts in similar form, though built of earth and decently marked with crosses outlined in pebbles. At both residence and aduana the ethnologic expedition was welcomed and supported by Don Bartolo Orte. ga (in the temporary absence of the eldest brother), as well as by the local customs officer, Señor Garcias, the way having been made easy by the courteous prevision of Mexican authorities. *

[graphic]

ON THE WAY WEST

WARD

“The Santo Domingo of today

a

prises a chief residence, a habitation for the aduana (customs office), a smaller house occupied by a minor branch of the family, a church with horseshoe shape bell arch, and three or four shops and stables, all of adobe, flat-roofed and one low story high ; besides, there is an abandoned ore mill of half a dozen steamdriven arrastres, while half a dozen Papago Indian huts form the customary “lower town." The rancho is large, skilfully irrigated, and so productive that corrals and sheds are filled with vigorous stock and abundant grain-lay and barley. The nearest low spur of Sierra Sonoyta better attests the antiquity of the settlement than the few houses and inhabitants ; for there the evangelists and their civil successors have laid seven or eight generations of their dead in cross-marked sepulchres, while liard by lies the much more populous cemetery of the Papago dependents—those of the pagan dead in the form of a ki (house), but built of stones and strewn with the bones of sacrificed horses ; those of the

On November 15,

1900, a six-mule wagon carrying all the casks and kegs

* His Excellency Manuel de Aspiroz, the Mexicau Anibassador at Washington, and Excellencia Feruaudo Leal, Secretario de Fomento, in Mexico, were on this occasion, as on others, most liberal and obliging in furuishing authority for the international ethnologic work, while the Mexican authorities at Nogales were so generous as to send a representative to Phænix, and thence with the expedition to Santo Domingo. The party comprised w J McGee, in charge; De Lancey Gill, artist; Professor R. H. Forbes, of Tucson, a guest during part of the expedition ; John J. Carroll and Jim Moberly, stockmen ; Aurelio Mata, Mexican customs officer, and Ramon Zapeda, Mexican interpreter, with Hugli Norris, Papago interpreter. The entire route was from Phoenix to Gila Bend ; thence via Ajo to Quitobaquito and Santo Domingo; thence to Sonoyta and southward via Quitobac, Cozoni, and Las Tajitas to Caborca ; next westward to the Gulf shore (at the point recently occupied by the now extinct Tepoka tribe), and thence back, mainly by new routes, to Santo Domingo. From this point the old Yuma trail was traversed to Tinajas Altas, and thence via Gila City to Yuma, whence the expedition pushed on to the Cocopa cowtry, near the mouth of Colorado river, afterward returning via Yuma and the Gila valley to Plienix.

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