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press, which not only presses out the nets, seines, shrimp and crab traps. milk and oil, but also keeps back the Their fishing boats are called bancas. fiber of the shell. When the boat-like One of the most interesting things in receptacle underneath the press is filled the fishing line is a seashell from with the oil, milk, and water, it is drawn Tondo, a fishing point in the suburbs to a fire, where the contents are heated of Manila. The apex of this shell is in cauldrons until the oil rises to the sawni off to form a mouth-piece, and is surface and is scooped off.

used by the fishermen to call assistThe farmers of the Philippines have ance when large schools of fish are their peaceful occupations well repre- found. sented. One will find at the fair all In the collection there is a milk ventheir agricultural implements and their der's outfit, such as is used in the cities clumsy, heavy plows and wagons. Their of the Philippines. The outfit consists plows are for the most part made entirely of a black earthenware jar hung in a of wood, with the exception of the share, network of rattan partly covered with which is of iron. The harrow is formed leather, a wooden shoulder yoke for of a number of pieces of bamboo held carrying the jar, a pitcher formed from together by three transverse rods pass- one section of a large bamboo, with a ing through the pieces of bamboo. The wooden handle attached by wire, and teeth are formed of stubs of branches, a measure also formed from a section with cords and yoke attached for one of bamboo, branded with the inspection caribou.

and license number of the vender. The caribou is used in all their farm Other trades are represented by apwork and must be quite a tractable ani- propriate exhibits, as the soldering pan mal. The prudent prospective immigrant and irons and tools of native tinsmiths. to the Philippines may gain a suggestion The pans are made of heavy earthenfrom a caribou sled which is used in ware. There is a set of native carmuddy weather along the slimy roads penter's tools; also a native harnessand in the rice swamps.

This is very

maker's outfit, with samples of tanned unique and will attract much attention leather, a set of blacksmith's tools, and and create comment on the weather a set of mason's tools. conditions prevailing in the Island of The amusements and forms of recreLuzon.

ation of the Filipinos also have a place The Filipino rice reaper is made with in the collection. They are evidently a handle of wood in the shape of a hook a musically inclined people, judging and a blade of steel fastened on the from the gay costumes of a native band under side of the grip. In using this of musicians with their instrumentsimplement it is held in the right hand mandolin, Aute, guitar, violin, and 'cello. and the hook gathers in the rice while In the musical collection are a beautiful the knife cuts it in one operation. harp made of two kinds of narras wood

Farmers will smile when they see a and ebony, and an instrument supposed farmer's costume such as is worn by to be a horn, made from four sections the agricultural class among the Tagals of bamboo, each open at one end and of Luzon. It consists of a shirt of husi closed at the other. The sections are clothi, a pair of trousers, and a piece of inserted into one another at right angles cloth used for carrying articles over the and the joints made air-tight with a shoulder or on the back.

native gum, the last section being fastThat nature still supplies the wants ened to the main tube by rattan. The of the Filipinos to a great extent is horn is held horizontally and played in shown by a supply of fishing tackle, the same manuer as a cornet.

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The Filipinos have many forms of strips or splints of rattan tied in the amusements, but the greatest of them all form of a “Turk's head” knot. is cock-fighting. There is in the Hilder Forcible illustrations of Filipino warcollection a cock-fighter's box, contain- fare are fifteen cylindrical canisters of ing four steel gaffs to fasten on the native Filipino manufacture, formed of fighting cock's spurs and four leashes sheets of tin nailed around two cirto restrict them when not actively en- cular pieces of wood ; they are filled gaged. Pompa cabeza, a puzzle game, with scraps of iron and fired by insuris shown. Natives in nearly every part gents from smooth-bore guns at very of Luzon play this game, which is at- short range ; and a bamboo cannon tended with much betting. Roulette bound with wire, captured by United wheels and other games of chance are States troops, at Balange Bataan, ou much in vogue throughout the islands, January 5, 1900, as the collection shows.

The exhibit comprises much more Foot ball must be a popular game in than can be covered in a brief article. It the islands, judging by a ball which the will prove profitable in giving informaFilipino tosses and kicks about. It is tion as to commercial interests, besides somewhat different from our regulation giving new ideas and opinions concernfoot ball, being made of a number of ing the Philippines and their people.

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GEOGRAPHIC NOTES

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TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING OF The results of these surveys are pubTHE UNITED STATES. lislied on sheets approximately 16', by

20 inches and represent quadrilaterals TEARLY 900,000 square miles, or of !5' or 30' of latitude and longitude,

about 30 per cent, of the area of according as the scale is one or two miles the United States have been mapped by to the inch. the experts of the U. S. Geological Sur- The atlas sheets can be procured at vey during the past twenty years, New purely nominal prices on application to England, the middle Atlantic States, ihe Director of the Geological Survey. and small sections of Wisconsin, Iowa, Louisiana, and California have been mapped on the scale of one mile to one THE GERMAN CENSUS. inch and their elevations and surface relief expressed by contour lines located HE figures of the last census of at intervals of 5 to 20 feet vertically. Germany reveal some very sig. Maps of large sections of Kansas, Mis- nificant facts relative to the great indussouri, Texas, and Virginia have been trial and agricultural contest that is now made on the scale of two miles to an being waged in the Empire. The census inch and with contour lines indicating was taken on December 1, 1900. The vertical intervals of 20 to 100 feet. growth of the cities, the industrial cen

Mr. H. M. Wilson, of the Geological ters, during the preceding five years has Survey, contributes to a recent number been unprecedented in the history of the of The Engineering News an interesting Empire. Of the thirty-three cities with statement of this branch of work of the a population of over 100,000, every one survey and explains its great practical but Crefeld shows a great increase. value. As an example he mentions the Crefeld has decreased by 350, owing case of the city of Waterbury, Conn., probably to the high tariff in the United which, after spending $10,000 in fruit- States on silk goods, which has caused lessly searching for sources of water Americans to import only foreign silks supply, learned on consulting the Gov- of the highest grade. As a result, many ernment topographic maps of a source hundreds of persons in Crefeld who of good water previously unsuspected. were formerly employed in the silk facThe survey expends nearly $350,000 tories were thrown out of work. Creannually in making these maps. Many feld manufacturers have now begun to States also appropriate large sums to turn their attention to the making of assist the work of the survey in their cotton and woolen goods, and it is hoped particular areas. New York, Pennsyl- that the next census will show an invania, Maine, Alabama, and Maryland crease, not a decrease in the population. annually appropriate $75,000 to hurry Among the cities which show the largest the completion of the mapping of their increase is Berlin, which has added over territory. The expense of mapping 207,000, or 12.3 per cent, to the numnaturally depends upon the character of ber of her inhabitants, making her presthe country. The cost of mapping an ent population 1,884,345, not including open country is from five to ten dollars the suburban cities. Including her suba square mile ; that of mountainous or urbs, Berlin numbers 2,500,000. forest areas about double or triple that The city that has increased most rapamount.

idly is Nuremberg, which in five years has added 98,357, or 60 per cent, in a The generally prevalent belief that a total population of 260,743. This is due winter of heavy snowfall is succeeded largely to the situation of Nuremberg at by swollen streams in spring and sumthe point of junction of many highways mer is not necessarily correct. It is not and of seven railroads. The city of the quantity of snow that falls during Posen has increased by 42,912 since the winter so much as the condition of 1895, largely by the influx of farmers the soil when winter sets in, the quality and agricultural people from the coun- of the snow, and the time when it falls, try, more especially from Prussia.

that determine whether streams shall Stettin now numbers 209,988 souls, continue full late in the season and furan increase in population of 69,264, nish abundance of water for irrigating owing to its position as the seaport of canals. An unusually heavy snowfall Berlin.

in March will certainly be followed by Hamburg has added 79,117, making a drought in late spring and summer, unpopulation of 704,069; Munich, 87,502, less this siiow was preceded by a snowmaking a total of 498,503. Leipsic has fall in the early winter. It is the snow gained 55, 126 in a present population of that falls in November and December, 455,120, Dresden 58,909 in 305,349, and and thus becomes packed hard during Frankfort has increased 58,534, making the winter and melts slowly in the her population 287,813.

spring and summer, that keeps water These figures show clearly that the in the streams till summer is nearly over. Germans are becoming more and more a The snow that falls in March and Febmanufacturing people. The land-owners ruary has no time to become packed and are becoming alarined and are even dis- hardened. The first warm breath of cussing the advisability of importing spring melts it with a rush, the streams Chinese to work on their farms.

overflow their banks, freshets flood the The population of the empire is country for a few days; then gradually 56,345,014, an increase of about four the streams subside and a drouglit million, or of 7.78 per cent within five ensues. years. It is interesting to note that there The issuing of special snow bulletins are nearly a million more females than has been continued this winter by the males, whereas in the United States this section directors of the U. S. Weather proportion is reversed.

Bureau in Colorado, Montana, Idaho,
Utah, New Mexico, and Wyoming.

These bulletins give the average amount EFFECT OF SNOWFALL ON of snow on the ground, the amount in WATER SUPPLY.

the timber line, and the depth of the

snow at or near the mountain summits. OME very interesting conclusions From their knowledge of the depth,

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of the U. S. Weather Bureau, who have the Weather Bureau experts are able to for several years been studying the effect give a reliable general forecast of the of winter snowfall on the water supply water supply for the ensuing season for of the sticceeding summer. The obser- the different streams of the arid section. vations have been confined to the arid The farmer thus learns months in adregions of the west, more particularly vance the quantity of water his irrigatColorado and Idaho, where the rivers ing ditches are likely to receive. The and streams derive their principal water sheep-hierder also studies the snow supply from the melting of the snow on bulletin with profit. In early spring the mountains,

bands of sheep begin to roam the prai

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ries, keeping, of course, close to water. Kekurnoi ; cape near Cold Bay, SheliOften the sheep may travel 400 to 600 kof Strait, Alaska (not Kahurnoi, miles, and by knowing the character Nelupaki, nor Nukakalkak). and amount of the snow in the mountains, the herder can follow a route

Kessler ; mountain and triangulation where water will be plentiful.

station near Fayetteville, Washing

ton County, Arkansas (not Kestler). Klahini; river tributary to Burroughs

Bay, Behm Canal, southeastern GEOGRAPHIC NAMES.

Alaska(not Clahona nor Klaheena).

Leechville ; post-office, Beaufort County, HE following decisions were made

North Carolina (not Leachville). by the United States Board on

Steele ; point, the easternmost point of Geographic Names, February 6, 1901 :

Hinchinbrook Island, Prince WilAmbrose ; the channel across Sandy

liam Sound, Alaska (not Bentinck Hook Bar, New York Harbor, for

nor Steel). merly known as East Harbor, was re- Tuttle ; lake, Polk County, Wisconsin named Ambrose Channel by an act (not Swahn). of Congress approved June 6, 1900. In that act it is Provided, That the

West Point ; United States Military so-called East Channel across Sandy

Academy, New York (not WestHook Bar, New York Harbor, for

point). the improvement of which provision was made by the river and harbor act, approved March third, eighteen CHARTING THE HARBORS OF hundred and ninety-nine, shall here

THE PHILIPPINES. after be known as Anibrose Channel" (Statutes at Large, 56th Con- Preliminary steps have been taken by gress, ist session, pp. 588 and 627).

the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey for The name Ambrose is here included charting the harbors and coast of the not as a decision of the Board, but Philippine Islands. A sub-office of the as a decision by Congress.

Survey has been established at Manila, Conaskonk; point, Monmouth County,

in charge of G. R. Putnam, who has a New Jersey (not Conaskonck).

force of men collecting material to assist

in the work. In the early spring active Cove City ; township, Crawford County, work will be commenced and pushed, so Arkansas (not Core).

that it is hoped that sufficient accurate

data will have been obtained by the fall Garrett ; hill in Middletown, Monmouth

to enable the publication of charts of County, New Jersey (not Garret

the larger harbors among the islands. nor Garrett's).

There are no charts of the many minor Guttenberg ; post-office and railroad ports in the islands that serve as points

station, Clayton County, Iowa (not of distribution for the inter-island trade, Guttenburg).

and these also must be charted.

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