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press, which not only presses out the milk and oil, but also keeps back the fiber of the shell. When the boat-like receptacle underneath the press is filled with the oil, milk, and water, it is drawn to a fire, where the contents are heated in cauldrons until the oil rises to the surface and is scooped off.
The farmers of the Philippines have their peaceful occupations well represented. One will find at the fair all their agricultural implements and their clumsy, heavy plows and wagons. Their plows are for the most part made entirely of wood, with the exception of the share, which is of iron. The harrow is formed of a number of pieces of bamboo held together by three transverse rods passing through the pieces of bamboo. The teeth are formed of stubs of branches, with cords and yoke attached for one caribou.
The caribou is used in all their farm work and must be quite a tractable animal. The prudent prospective immigrant to the Philippines may gain a suggestion from a caribou sled which is used in muddy weather along the slimy roads and in the rice swamps. This is very unique and will attract much attention and create comment on the weather conditions prevailing in the Island of Luzon.
The Filipino rice reaper is made with a handle of wood in the shape of a hook and a blade of steel fastened on the under side of the grip. In using this implement it is held in the right hand and the hook gathers in the rice while the knife cuts it in one operation.
Farmers will smile when they see a farmer's costume such as is worn by the agricultural class among the Tagals of Luzon. It consists of a shirt of husi cloth, a pair of trousers, and a piece of cloth used for carrying articles over the shoulder or on the back.
That nature still supplies the wants of the Filipinos to a great extent is shown by a supply of fishing tackle,
nets, seines, shrimp and crab traps. Their fishing boats are called bancas. One of the most interesting things in the fishing line is a seashell from Tondo, a fishing point in the suburbs. of Manila. The apex of this shell is sawn off to form a mouth-piece, and is used by the fishermen to call assistance when large schools of fish are found.
In the collection there is a milk vender's outfit, such as is used in the cities of the Philippines. The outfit consists of a black earthenware jar hung in a network of rattan partly covered with leather, a wooden shoulder yoke for carrying the jar, a pitcher formed from one section of a large bamboo, with a wooden handle attached by wire, and a measure also formed from a section of bamboo, branded with the inspection and license number of the vender.
Other trades are represented by appropriate exhibits, as the soldering pan and irons and tools of native tinsmiths. The pans are made of heavy earthenware. There is a set of native carpenter's tools; also a native harnessmaker's outfit, with samples of tanned leather, a set of blacksmith's tools, and a set of mason's tools.
The amusements and forms of recreation of the Filipinos also have a place in the collection. They are evidently a musically inclined people, judging from the gay costumes of a native band of musicians with their instruments— mandolin, flute, guitar, violin, and 'cello. In the musical collection are a beautiful harp made of two kinds of narras wood and ebony, and an instrument supposed to be a horn, made from four sections of bamboo, each open at one end and closed at the other. The sections are inserted into one another at right angles and the joints made air-tight with a native gum, the last section being fastened to the main tube by rattan. The horn is held horizontally and played in the same manner as a cornet.
The Filipinos have many forms of amusements, but the greatest of them all is cock-fighting. There is in the Hilder collection a cock-fighter's box, containing four steel gaffs to fasten on the fighting cock's spurs and four leashes to restrict them when not actively engaged. Pompa cabeza, a puzzle game, is shown. Natives in nearly every part of Luzon play this game, which is attended with much betting. Roulette wheels and other games of chance are much in vogue throughout the islands, as the collection shows.
Foot ball must be a popular game in the islands, judging by a ball which the Filipino tosses and kicks about. It is somewhat different from our regulation foot ball, being made of a number of
strips or splints of rattan tied in the form of a "Turk's head" knot.
Forcible illustrations of Filipino warfare are fifteen cylindrical canisters of native Filipino manufacture, formed of sheets of tin nailed around two circular pieces of wood; they are filled with scraps of iron and fired by insurgents from smooth-bore guns at very short range; and a bamboo cannon bound with wire, captured by United States troops, at Balange Bataan, ou January 5, 1900.
The exhibit comprises much more than can be covered in a brief article. It will prove profitable in giving information as to commercial interests, besides giving new ideas and opinions concerning the Philippines and their people.
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING OF THE UNITED STATES.
The results of these surveys are published on sheets approximately 1611⁄2 by 20 inches and represent quadrilaterals of 30' latitude
NEARLY 900,000 squarehe area of according as the sale is an ongitudes
about 30 per cent, of
the United States have been mapped by the experts of the U. S. Geological Survey during the past twenty years. England, the middle Atlantic States, and small sections of Wisconsin, Iowa, Louisiana, and California have been mapped on the scale of one mile to one inch and their elevations and surface relief expressed by contour lines located by co no at intervals of 5 to 20 feet vertically. Maps of large sections of Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Virginia have been made on the scale of two miles to an inch and with contour lines indicating vertical intervals of 20 to 100 feet.
Mr. H. M. Wilson, of the Geological Survey, contributes to a recent number of The Engineering News an interesting statement of this branch of work of the survey and explains its great practical value. As an example he mentions the case of the city of Waterbury, Conn., which, after spending $10,000 in fruitlessly searching for sources of water supply, learned on consulting the Government topographic maps of a source of good water previously unsuspected. The survey expends nearly $350,000 annually in making these maps. Many States also appropriate large sums to assist the work of the survey in their particular areas. New York, Pennsylvania, Maine, Alabama, and Maryland annually appropriate $75,000 to hurry the completion of the mapping of their territory. The expense of mapping naturally depends upon the character of the country. The cost of mapping an open country is from five to ten dollars a square mile; that of mountainous or forest areas about double or triple that amount.
to the inch.
The atlas sheets can be procured at purely nominal prices on application to the Director of the Geological Survey.
THE GERMAN CENSUS.
HE figures of the last census of Germany reveal some very significant facts relative to the great industrial and agricultural contest that is now being waged in the Empire. The census was taken on December 1, 1900. growth of the cities, the industrial centers, during the preceding five years has been unprecedented in the history of the Empire. Of the thirty-three cities with a population of over 100,000, every one but Crefeld shows a great increase. Crefeld has decreased by 350, owing probably to the high tariff in the United States on silk goods, which has caused Americans to import only foreign silks of the highest grade. As a result, many hundreds of persons in Crefeld who were formerly employed in the silk factories were thrown out of work. feld manufacturers have now begun to turn their attention to the making of cotton and woolen goods, and it is hoped that the next census will show an increase, not a decrease, in the population. Among the cities which show the largest increase is Berlin, which has added over 207,000, or 12.3 per cent, to the number of her inhabitants, making her present population 1,884,345, not including the suburban cities. Including her suburbs, Berlin numbers 2,500,000.
The city that has increased most rapidly is Nuremberg, which in five years.
has added 98,357, or 60 per cent, in a total population of 260,743. This is due largely to the situation of Nuremberg at the point of junction of many highways and of seven railroads. The city of Posen has increased by 42,912 since 1895, largely by the influx of farmers and agricultural people from the country, more especially from Prussia.
Stettin now numbers 209,988 souls, an increase in population of 69,264, owing to its position as the seaport of Berlin.
Hamburg has added 79, 117, making a population of 704,069; Munich, 87,502, making a total of 498,503. Leipsic has gained 55, 126 in a present population of 455,120, Dresden 58,909 in 305,349, and Frankfort has increased 58,534, making her population 287,813.
These figures show clearly that the Germans are becoming more and more a manufacturing people. The land-owners are becoming alarmed and are even discussing the advisability of importing Chinese to work on their farms.
The population of the empire is 56,345,014, an increase of about four million, or of 7.78 per cent within five years. It is interesting to note that there are nearly a million more females than males, whereas in the United States this proportion is reversed.
The generally prevalent belief that a winter of heavy snowfall is succeeded by swollen streams in spring and summer is not necessarily correct. It is not the quantity of snow that falls during the winter so much as the condition of the soil when winter sets in, the quality of the snow, and the time when it falls, that determine whether streams shall continue full late in the season and furnish abundance of water for irrigating canals. An unusually heavy snowfall in March will certainly be followed by drought in late spring and summer, unless this snow was preceded by a snowfall in the early winter. It is the snow that falls in November and December, and thus becomes packed hard during the winter and melts slowly in the spring and summer, that keeps water in the streams till summer is nearly over. The snow that falls in March and February has no time to become packed and hardened. The first warm breath of spring melts it with a rush, the streams overflow their banks, freshets flood the country for a few days; then gradually the streams subside and a drought
The issuing of special snow bulletins has been continued this winter by the section directors of the U. S. Weather Bureau in Colorado, Montana, Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Wyoming. These bulletins give the average amount of snow on the ground, the amount in the timber line, and the depth of the snow at or near the mountain summits. From their knowledge of the depth, character, and distribution of the snow, the Weather Bureau experts are able to give a reliable general forecast of the water supply for the ensuing season for the different streams of the arid section. The farmer thus learns months in advance the quantity of water his irrigating ditches are likely to receive. The sheep-herder also studies the snow bulletin with profit. In early spring bands of sheep begin to roam the prai
ries, keeping, of course, close to water. Often the sheep may travel 400 to 600 miles, and by knowing the character and amount of the snow in the mountains, the herder can follow a route where water will be plentiful.
HE following decisions were made by the United States Board on Geographic Names, February 6, 1901: Ambrose; the channel across Sandy
Hook Bar, New York Harbor, formerly known as East Harbor, was renamed Ambrose Channel by an act of Congress approved June 6, 1900. In that act it is "Provided, That the so-called East Channel across Sandy Hook Bar, New York Harbor, for the improvement of which provision was made by the river and harbor act, approved March third, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, shall hereafter be known as Ambrose Channel" (Statutes at Large, 56th Congress, 1st session, pp. 588 and 627). The name Ambrose is here included not as a decision of the Board, but as a decision by Congress.
Conaskonk; point, Monmouth County, New Jersey (not Conaskonck). Cove City; township, Crawford County, Arkansas (not Core).
Garrett; hill in Middletown, Monmouth County, New Jersey (not Garret nor Garrett's).
Guttenberg; post-office and railroad station, Clayton County, Iowa (not Guttenburg).
Kekurnoi; cape near Cold Bay, Shelikof Strait, Alaska (not Kahurnoi, Nelupaki, nor Nukakalkak).
Kessler; mountain and triangulation station near Fayetteville, Washington County, Arkansas (not Kestler). Klahini; river tributary to Burroughs Bay, Behm Canal, southeastern Alaska (not Clahona nor Klaheena). Leechville; post-office, Beaufort County, North Carolina (not Leachville).
Steele; point, the easternmost point of Hinchinbrook Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska (not Bentinck nor Steel).
Tuttle; lake, Polk County, Wisconsin (not Swahn).
West Point; United States Military Academy, New York (not Westpoint).
CHARTING THE HARBORS OF THE PHILIPPINES.
Preliminary steps have been taken by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey for charting the harbors and coast of the Philippine Islands. A sub-office of the Survey has been established at Manila, in charge of G. R. Putnam, who has a force of men collecting material to assist in the work. In the early spring active work will be commenced and pushed, so that it is hoped that sufficient accurate data will have been obtained by the fall to enable the publication of charts of the larger harbors among the islands. There are no charts of the many minor ports in the islands that serve as points of distribution for the inter-island trade, and these also must be charted.