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The special fitting out of the Adria small-boat parties, would be best adapted with cable appliances, as well as spare

for the purpose.

She must carry a modcable, the work of the St. Louis in cut- erate supply of spare cable and machinting cables, the operations of the Marble- ery for laying and picking up cable, as head, Nashville, and Windom at Cien- well as instruments for testing and opfuegos, and of the Mangrove, are too well erating a cable, and the necessary buoys, known to be repeated here. It will be suitable, if necessary, for buoying the more valuable to endeavor to draw the cable, and operating the ship as a floating correct conclusion from these operations, cable station. It is unnecessary to state, and thereby make proper provision for the also, that her personnel must be specially execution of similar operations in time trained in the highly technical duties reof war.

quired, and from actual practice in all the It appears that the searching for deep- operations necessary, be made ready for sea cables in the high seas in time of war, the performance of their duties efficiently without an accurate chart of the location under the conditions of war. of the cable, is a difficult and very doubt- Although these naval cable cruisers in ful operation; also that submarine cables time of peace could be profitably emmust in general be interrupted near their ployed in maintaining and repairing both landing places, where their exact location cables belonging exclusively to the govcan be determined with certainty. From ernment, and those subsidized by the govthe experience of the Spanish-American ernment, under suitable arrangements, War, operations of this kind are extreme- yet, at the outbreak of war they should be ly dangerous, as the cable landing will be absolutely and exclusively under the conprotected and defended by the enemy. trol of the government. It may be said

Supply of spare cable and suitable in- at present that no modern fleet is comstruments for working the same must be plete without a cable-ship, especially available with every naval fleet—in order adapted for cable operations in time of to supply the necessary communications with the shore, in case of the landing of

Since submarine cables are so imporeither a coöperating army, or of tempo- tant a factor in national defence, they rary forces from the ships. Cable-ships should be protected both at their shore engaged in either laying, cutting, or re- landings and on the high seas by military pairing cable near the shore, must either and naval force. be provided with their own means of de- In this connection it would seem advisfence, or else convoyed by war-ships. able in case of government cables, or of

These facts make it clear that a new cables subsidized by the government, to type of naval ship is to make its appear- keep the exact route of important cables ance as a necessary adjunct to every naval a secret, and prevent the publication of fleet. Just as the naval repair-ship, such maps for general distribution, showing as the Vulcan, has been found useful and their exact location in the deep sea. The necessary, so will the new cable cruiser location of the shore ends, however, is be an essential part of the navy of the certain to be known. near future. It is not intended here to A cable landing, for the future, should enter into the question of the proper de partake of the character of a fort, and be sign of such ships, but it would seem provided with adequate means for prethat a specially designed cable-ship, with venting an enemy from locating and decomparatively large coal capacity and stroying the cable within the marine high speed, and an armament of the league, or, until it has reached deep lighter cruiser class, making her capable sea, where its accurate location is not of defending herself and protecting her known.


The sea is usually considered as the mount natural advantages, both for comgreat international highway, belonging merce and for maritime strength, she purequally to all nations; this, however, is sues a broad, vigorous, and even lavish no longer true. The real political bound- "cable policy." We should be able at the aries of states are no longer defined and earliest date to manufacture upon Amerirestricted by the land, but involve such can soil deep-sea cables of the first class; portions of the high seas as a nation can, be able to lay, maintain, and repair them by her commercial and naval vessels, and in time of peace or war by ships flying her submarine cables, reach out and se- the American flag, and be prepared to cure. In this great sea division, which is adequately protect them upon the high so surely taking place, probably there are seas, and at their landing places by milino better guides to boundaries than the tary and naval force. submarine cable net-works which lie in its The cable question is one of the most great depths. Since each in general uses important of the present hour, unique in the shortest path between two points, the that American commerce, diplomacy, and general commercial sailing lines are also sea-power—in fact the most efficient the general direction of cable lines.

means of advancing and securing the The United States will be wise if, in benefits of civilization itself-happily conthe great Pacific where she has such para- spire in demanding its early solution. .




Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg

T is the purpose of this paper to essary to, and the mechanical appliances record some observations made by employed in, the gaining of a livelihood.

the writer among the Indian tribes Owing to the natural barriers to social of Southern South America, during the or commercial intercourse, presented by three years of exploration conducted by the topography of the region, communihim in that region in behalf of Princeton cation between the different tribes is now University. The country occupied by the and always has been extremely limited. people under discussion embraces that This long period of comparative isolation part of South America lying beyond the has, with one exception, permitted each forty-sixth parallel of south latitude, in- tribe to remain practically uninfluenced cluding the mainland and the adjoining by the others, and has doubtless contribislands as far south as Cape Horn. The uted to produce those linguistic and sociopeople living in this region belong to four logic features at present so distinctive of distinct tribes, each inhabiting a certain each. limited area and differing from the others Commencing with the mainland we in language, customs, physical develop- shall first consider the Tehuelches, that ment, and especially in the activities nec- so-called race of giants, made famous by the exaggerated accounts of them that for centuries have supplied all their brought home by the earliest travellers simple wants, they display that homely from Magellan's time to the beginning of hospitality so characteristic of well-fed the present century. Of splendid phy- and well-clothed savage and semi-civilsique, they are abundantly able to with- ized people in sparsely settled countries. stand the rigorous climate of the bleak, The frank, open countenance of the treeless plains of Eastern Patagonia, Tehuelche at once allays any uneasiness where they live and find ample suste- and establishes a feeling of confidence in nance and wholesome employment in the the mind of the solitary traveller who, in pursuit and capture of the guanaco and the course of his lonely wanderings rhea; both of which are extremely abun- throughout Patagonia may, by chance or dant throughout the entire extent of this necessity, be thrown among them. region.

The Tehuelches were formerly a conAs a people, though not the race of siderably more numerous people than at

a giants they were commonly reported to present, though it is hardly possible that be by most early writers, the Tehuelches they at any time numbered more than are, nevertheless, decidedly above the

5,000. It is doubtful if there are more average size.

Of the three hundred than five hundred of them remaining in Tehuelches living between the Santa Cruz all Patagonia, and this small number is River and the Strait of Magellan, I being rapidly reduced by diseases introshould place the average height of the duced among them through contact with men at not less than five feet eleven the whites. That they are not a prolific inches, with an average weight of one people is strikingly evidenced by the small hundred and seventy-five pounds. While number of children common to pure-bred the fully grown women (those above Tehuelche families. In cases where both twenty-four years of age) I should esti- parents were of pure Tehuelche stock, I mate at five feet seven inches, and of an do not remember to have seen more than average weight of but little, if any, short three children in any one family, while of that of the men. This lack of dis- one or two were much more generally the parity between the physical development number, and frequently there were famiof the sexes is paralleled also in their lies with no children. On the other hand mental development. It is noteworthy, in those families where a Tehuelche and is due very largely to the division of woman was married to a husband of labor among them. The labor necessary Spanish, French, or Portuguese descent, for the support of the family is more such unions were, as a rule, ordinarily equally divided between husband and productive of offspring, there being frewife, among the Tehuelches, than is com- quently six or seven children to the fammon with the Indian tribes of North ily. America.

Firearms are quite unknown among the That these Indians are muscular and southern Tehuelches. They rely entirely well proportioned, is seen by a glance at upon their skill with the bolas, aided by the illustrations accompanying this paper,

their horses and dogs, for the capture of There is a tendency to obesity rather than the guanaco and rhea, from which they angularity. Conscious of their physical derive not only their chief sustenance, but strength, like most persons of great also the skins employed in the construcphysique even among the more civilized tion of their clothing, bedding, and tents nations, they exhibit a kindly manner and or toldos. Formerly they used the bow gentle disposition. Accustomed to the and arrow, but with the introduction of free life of the plains, and living in the the horse at the advent of the Spaniard, midst of an abundance of those animals the bola entirely supplanted the bow and


arrow, and at present the latter weapon pottery, worn out and discarded stone is no longer seen among them.

scrapers, stone chippings, arrow points, The changes wrought upon the Te- drills, mortars, etc. A site of one of these huelches by the advent of the horse, is a old-time Indian villages I examined very subject well worthy of the attention of carefully.

carefully. The bottom of the cañon the anthropologist. To this professional bears unmistakable evidence of having capacity I lay no claim, but I wish to men- been long used as a favorite camption some observations made by myself ing ground of the Tehuelches. The bearing directly upon this subject. Not soil over a considerable area is literally only was the advent of the horse the de- filled and covered with stone chippings, termining factor in supplanting the bow scrapers, broken pottery, broken and and arrow by the bola among these Ind- charred fragments of bones of mammals, ians, but the introduction of that useful birds and fishes, the latter taken from the animal produced other most decided stream which still flows between the vilchanges in the life and habits of the lage site and the high bluff beyond. Tehuelches. Prior to the introduction of At this place I picked up about two the horse they were dependent upon the hundred arrow points and drills, most of bow and arrow not only for securing their them imperfect, but did not find a single food and clothing, but also for protecting bola. Is it not possible that the introducthemselves from the more numerous and tion of the horse brought about the aboliwarlike Indians who inhabited the coun- tion of the bow and arrow and the adoptry to the north, and with whom they tion of the bola as a weapon of offence were constantly at war. Greatly out- and defence? The bola, considering the numbered by a deadly enemy and de- limit of its effective range, and the time prived of any rapid means of escape if necessarily consumed in attaining a suffiattacked by a superior force, their favorite cient impetus before discharging it, cercamping places were then chosen with ref- tainly does not appear to be especially erence to concealment and defence, quite well adapted for the capture, by a man on as much as, or even more than, for their foot, of animals possessed of such speed convenience to natural food supplies. In and endurance as are the guanaca and those pre-equine days, if I may use the rhea. Whether the bola was in use among term, the Tehuelche was wont to select these Indians prior to the advent of the for his encampment a secluded place in horse, can perhaps never be definitely dethe bottom of some deep basalt cañon, termined, but there can be little doubt that adjacent to a stream or small spring, or as an implement for the capture of game, if living on one of the larger rivers, the it came into far more general use after the encampment would be situated not in a introduction of the horse, when it began conspicuous place in the bottom of the gradually to displace the bow and arrow, valley, convenient to an abundance of finally resulting in the total disappearance grass and water, as at present, but would of the latter weapon. Throughout my be hidden away in some bend of the travels in Patagonia I was struck by the stream or placed high up among the almost total absence of bola stones about débris of basaltic rocks that encumber the old village sites, where arrow points the slopes of most of the more important were as a rule found in unusual abunstreams of the Patagonian plains. In dance. The place just referred to was such positions their low, box-like toldos, evidently long occupied as a favorite enmade of guanaco skins of a dull brown campment. That it has been long abancolor, would not be easily detected. doned is evident from the fact that

Many such old camping places may over considerable areas implement-bearnow be seen, strewn with pieces of broken ing strata are buried beneath several feet

[merged small][merged small][graphic]

Channel Indians of the West Coast and Western Part of Strait of


companied as each band invariably is by several hundred horses, thus necessitating the selection of a site near abundant grazing lands.

the bow and arrow. Scattered about the old village sites are numerous pieces of broken pottery, though the manufacture of pottery is now a lost art with the

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