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As early as 1856-'57 two concessions mining machinery has never been used were granted to the Cautabro Philippine in the Philippines. Igorrote miners in Mining Company, and an attempt was the Benguet - Lepanto - Bontoc district made to exploit them and market their discard all rock in which there is not product. Rude methods of mining, visible a considerable quantity of free ruder methods of extracting the metal, gold. Prospectors in this region claim and still more rude and primitive meth- to have located very extensive deposits ods of transportation, combined with of low-grade, free-milling ore, which will lack of sufficient capital and suitable yield large and certain returns as soon labor, led to the abandonment of this as concessions can be secured aud maattempt, and for more than twenty years chinery put in place. Unless the statethe property, which in itself is a small ments of those who have been working claim upon the immense ledge above re- in this region are utterly false. it is true ferred to, has been occupied only to the that very valuable deposits have been limited extent required by the Spanish located, and that extensive operations mining laws to prevent the cancellation will be undertaken as soon as claims of the concession. The officer at present can be granted and machinery placed. in charge of the mining bureau charac- At all events, it is certain that the men terizes this deposit as an “undoubted who have located these deposits have bonanza.'' The main thing necessary
sufficient faith in them to camp on for its exploitation is the opening up of them and wait month after nionth for a short line of communication with the the tinie to come when they can estabcoast.
lish their claims. Lignites are known to exist in Luzon, Extensive deposits of high-grade iron Bataan (the island, not the province), ore are known to exist, but it would seem Mindoro, Masbate, Negros, Cebú, Min- that their development must be predanao, and other islands. Some of the ceded by the development of the coal deposits are very extensive. As yet they fields. have been worked only at or near the But before any of the mineral resurface.
sources of the islands can be developed Testimony is unanimous to the fact mining laws must be enacted and existthat the Philippine coals do not clinker, ing claims settled. nor do they soil the boiler tubes to any such extent as do Japanese and Austra
HARBORS AND HIGHWAYS. lian coals.
The extensive fields near Bulacacao, As may have been expected, centers in southern Mindoro, are within four to of population and comparative wealth six miles of a harbor which gives safe are to be found at the seaports and teranchorage throughout the year and ritories contiguous thereto, which are which has water deep enough for the more or less accessible to markets by largest ocean-going vessels. Some of means of water communication ; but the Cebú deposits are also conveniently these favored localities are limited in situated with reference to harbor facil- area and their facilities for doing busiities. It is to be confidently expected ness are, with few exceptions, inadethat the coal will play a very important quate and unsatisfactory. part in the future development of the Although there are numerous harbors archipelago.
dotting the coast line, there are but few The outlook as to gold mines grows that admit vessels of heavy draft. As more favorable as the operations of pros- a rule, they are not landlocked, and pectors are extended.
Modern gold- are more or less exposed to the pre
As a gen
vailing typhoons, so that there are fre- There are numerous water-courses in quently days, and even weeks during the great islands of Luzon and Mindanao which ships can neither load nor which have their sources in the mounload.
tains of the interior and flow to the sea Large vessels entering the harbor of in rapid and broken currents. Manila, having a draft of more than 16 eral rule, they are inconsiderable in feet, are now compelled to lie two miles volume and are either not navigable at or more offshore. 'Those of less draft all or, if navigable, only for a few miles
a than this find entrance into the Pasig from their mouths, so that they may be River. The bay is so large that it feels eliminated in considering the question the full effects of the winds. The only of transportation. method by which large vessels anchor- The so-called highways are generally ing therein can take on or discharge merely rude trails, which in the rainy cargo is by lightering At best, aud season, lasting half the year, are simply when the bay is calm, this is a tedious impassable, and during the dry season and very expensive process, and dur- are rough and only available for travel ing rough weather becomes impossible. to a very limited extent. As a result, Moreover, during the prevalence of ty- there are few natives of the interior who phoons, which are not infrequent, the have ever been beyond the boundaries of safety of vessels thus situated is much towns in which they live. The Comendangered.
mission has appropriated $1,000,000 to The cost of doing business in this be expended at once in road-building.
very great and constitutes a The Manila and Dagupan Railroad is very heavy burden
uponi commerce. at this time the only line in the entire Freight rates from Manila to Hong- island. It was constructed by English kong, a distance of about 700 miles capitalists and has been in operation only, are as much and sometimes more since 1892. It has a gauge of 3 feet than from San Francisco to Hongkong, and 6 inches and traverses a rather lowa distance of about 8,000 miles.
lying, fertile region, densely populated. The Spanish Government, more than It was perhaps improperly located in twenty years ago, formulated an elab- the beginning, and crossing, as it does, orate scheme for the construction of a quite a number of streams near their thoroughly protected harbor, with suf- mouths, which necessitated much trestle ficient depth of water to accommodate and bridge work, was expensive to conthe largest ships, and levied a special struct. This expense, it seems, was inlax on imports and exports for the pur- creased by unnecessary requirements of pose of raising the necessary funds to the Spanish Government. As a result, carry it into effect. Operations were it appears to have cost the company begun pursuant thereto shortly there- about $60,000 in gold per mile. It is an after and continued in a slow and in- expensive line to maintain by reason of termittent way up to the time of the the fact that several of the streams, in native outbreak of 1896, with the result seasons of flood, overflow their banks that about 30 per cent of the work con- and inflict much damage upon the roadtemplated was completed. Work upon bed. But, whilst it has not earned a these plans, witli slight modifications, fair interest on the extravagant sum lias been resumed by the Commission, which it cost, it has been wonderfully which has appropriated $1,000,000 for beneficial in increasing the population
and wealth of the provinces through There are 110 navigable rivers, roads, which it runs and affords a striking illusor even permanent trails in the islands. tration of the enormous benefits which
would accrue were railroads built in shelter in any weather, and with a other sections of these islands.
depth sufficient to enable vessels of A line has been projected from Manila heavy draft to approach close to shore.' eastward and southeast ward, running With this line built, the distance from along the shores of Laguna de Bay Manila to the United States would be across the island to a port on Lamon shortened by about 700 miles. The line Bay. This port is said to be the best would pass through a number of large in the islands, landlocked, affording towns and a rich and fertile country.
THE PHILIPPINE EXHIBIT AT THE PAN
By D. 0. Noble HOFFMANN
HEN the Pan-American Com- the Smithsonian Institution, which dismission first considered the patched the late Col. F. F. Hilder to
idea of a Philippine exhibit the Philippines to collect the exhibit. at the Buffalo Exposition, they were His long residence in the Philippine anxious to have on the grounds a typical Islands, together with his acquaintance Filipino village inhabited by genuine with many of the tribes and their dianatives—men, women, and children. lects, and his knowledge of the condiAfter much conference with the Govern- tions existing in the islands, coupled ment at Washington, it was shown that with his scientific training, served to fit the cost of such an enterprise would be him in a superior degree for this work. between $150,000 and $175,000, a sum Colonel Hilder certainly did remarkgreatly in excess of what would have ably well under the circumstances, and been necessary in more peaceful times. gathered an amount of valuable material Accordingly, the plan was declared not of great interest and importance to the feasible. However, the Commission people of the United States. He colwas anxious to have an exhibit of lected upward of one thousand pieces, some kind, and declared the sentiment illustrating every phase of native life. of the people demanded it. Further Every condition and station, every age efforts resulted in the sum of $10,000 and sex, every occupation, pastime, and being appropriated for the purpose.
It means of warfare, lias a place in the was decided that such a sum could only collection. procure purely ethnological specimens, Apparently hats, swords, and canes necessitating the barri:g out of natural are the objects upon which the Filipinos history and other subjects. The ex- bestow the most pride, for there are hibit thus was made to include what enough pieces of head-gear of various thie people of the Philippine Islands makes to fill a hatter's shop; enough make with their own hands or obtain swords, plain or fancifully carved, to by purchase or exchange.
arm a regulation-sized company, and The management of the money ap- enough canes to stock the stands of a propriated was placed in the hands of country-fair mountebank.
The swords are of different shapes. leaving it soft and glossy, and produces They are all sharpened to the nicety of thick suds the same as soap.
Extreme a razor. The bolo is the prevailing care must be taken not to let it get into weapon. It is very short, for accord
the eyes. ing to an old edict of the Spanish regime The native hearth is merely a rectanthe blade could only extend from the guilar frame of wood raised on four upwrist to the elbow in length.
rights of squared bamboo ; the bottom enough to give one an inspiration of is formed by a mat of woven splints of fear. It is used also in cutting sugar- bamboo, the whole forming a box-like cane, etc. The case is of wood and construction in which has been laid a very often merely bound with twine, so quantity of hardened earth compositioni, that the wielder can strike through if on which the fire is built. Pieces of this he has not the time to wusheath the substance in the shape of small elonsword. The common bolo has a blade gated cones serve for supporting pots. of steel, a wooden handle and an iron At the back of the hearth and fastened ferrule, though some have handles of to the two rear uprights is a piece of silver and are far richer in appearance bamboo with two long slots and two and design. One very formidable and holes cut entirely through, in which beautiful weapon is the Kriss sword. spoons and other utensils are placed. This has a wavy-shaped blade of steel, when not in use. The three cooking the handle being of wood wound with pots with this exhibit are of red earthennative twine.
ware and unique in design. The spoons Passing to articles of more practical are each made of cocoanut shell laced use, one of the first to attract attention to a handle by strips of rattani. is the “Luzon," a mortar used by the Making the fire on cold mornings Tagals as a receptacle in which to loosen is the unpleasant lot of many Amerithe husk from rice grain by pounding cans. However, they ought not to with a wooden pestle. It was the uni- grumble after they have seen the set of versal use of this article that caused the fire-making instruments used by the Spaniards to give the island of Luzon Filipinos and have had explained to its name.
them thie laborious task of merely makThen there are looms and other native ing a light. A piece of bamboo with a contrivances, showing the manner of slit through the middle is placed on making their different cloths-husi, jusi, any convenient spot, with some bamboo pina, cinamay, etc. These clothes are shavings beneatli. Another piece of found in many beautiful colors-pink, bamboo is then rubbed through the slit violet, orange, yellow, blue, and black- at right angles until the shavings smoke, and some are richly embroidered. Every when the shavings are fanned into a article of domestic use is to be seen- flame. laundry tubs and boards, scrubbing A model of a native cocoamut-oil facbrushes made of half of a cocoanut in tory forms one of the most interesting the husk, and brooms made of rice straw, exhibits of the industrial section. The and that necessary household article, the operator sits on a cross-beam and with back-scratcher, formed of a small piece his feet revolves, by means of two pedof cocoanut shell with serrated edge, als, a little metal shredder, which cuts laced with cotton thread to a long bam- up the cocoanut. The meat of the boo handle. Very suggestive of the cocoamut then moves to a second worker, popular song of the day are some sam- who crushes it by means of a roller ples of goo-goo soap bark. This bark is which he rolls back and forth with one especially adapted for washing the hair, hand. The meat thus crushed enters a