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Figure 3.—Summer Sea Fog pouring over Sausalito Hills and through Golden Gate.


Figure 4.-Fog Waves, View from U. S. Weather Bureau Observatory, Mount Tamalpais. Figure 5.-Fog Billow. View from U. S. Weather Bureau Observatory, Mount Tanalpais. mean annual temperature of the ocean graph is attached near the top of an in the vicinity of ihe city. During the open-canopied car, insuring good cirsummer months, owing to the fog, there culation, and carried through the fog is usually a cooling of at least 1 de- in this way a number of times. From grees at the lower stations; but in winter the data thus obtained, a rough crossnaturally these conditions are reversed, section is made. A typical pressure tlie temperature near the sea remaining distribution accompanying sea fogs has higher than on the mountain. 'The been recognized. In general, a movemean relative humidity at the station ment southward along the coast of an on Mt. Tamalpais was 59 per cent, area of high pressure in summer means while that at San Francisco was as high fresh northerly winds and high temperas 83 per cent. The average hourly atures in the interior of the State, with wind velocity for the higher station is brisk westerly winds laden with fog on also much greater than that of the the coast. lower station, the maximum velocities The illustrations that accompany this recorded being respectively 91 and paper depict very graphically the splen47, and about this proportion is main- dor of fog effects. Figure I shows the tained throughout the year.


morning fog covering the valleys-the The Weather Bureau officials in the most common type of fog. Figure 2 city receive frequent reports from Point shows a mass of lifted sea fog in a state Reyes and Mt. Tamalpais, and thus are of comparative rest. Figure 3 shows able to issue a daily chart slowing the the summer sea fog pouring in a mighty extent and cliaracter of the sea fog over torrent through the Golden Gate and Drakes Bay, the roadstead, and the submerging the neighboring hills. FigGolden Gate.

ures 4 and 5 show the great billows of From Mt. Tamalpais Mr. McAdie has the wind-driven sea of fog. made a special study of fog conditions. To Prof. Cleveland Abbe, editor of His method of obtaining a cross-section the Monthly Weather Review, and to of the fog is very ingenious. A descent Mr. Alexander G. McAdie, of San from the station to sea-level can be made Francisco, the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC by the train in about fifty minutes, a dis- MAGAZINE is indebted for the phototance of eight miles. A kite meteoro- graphs.




THE total amount of land in the public lands, there is about twice or

Philippine Islands is approxi- three times as much forest land as there mately 73,345,415 acres.

Of is waste land. The land is most fertile this amount it is estimated that about and for the greater part naturally irri4,940,000 acres are owned by individ- gated. There was a very great demand uals, leaving in public lands 68,405,415 for this land, but owing to the irreguacres. * The land lias not been surveyed, larities, frauds, and delays in the Spanand these are merely estimates. Of the ish system, the natives generally aban

doned efforts to secure a good title, and * The religious orders own about 400,000 acres. contented themselves with remaining

Report of Taft PhilipPINE



on the land as simple squatters, subject been any mining, properly so called, in to eviction by the State. In 1894 the this archipelago up to the present time. Minister for the Colonies reported to The mining fields have never been thorthe Queen of Spain that there were oughly prospected, and even where very about 200,000 squatters on the public valuable deposits were known to exist lands, but it is thought by employees in they were worked, if at all, in a hapthe forestry bureau, who have been in hazard and intermittent fashion. a position to know, that there are fully Present iudications are that the near double that number. In the various future will bring a great change in the islands of the archipelago tlie propor- mining industry. According to the chief tion of private land to public land is of the mining bureau there are now some about as stated above, except in Min- twelve hundred prospectors and practidanao, Mindoro, and Palawan, where cal miners scattered through the differthe proportion of public land is far ent islands of the archipelago. Of these greater.

probably 90 per cent are Americans. The insufficient character of the pub- They are for the most part men of good lic-land system under the Spanish Gov- character. They are pushing their way ernment in these islands makes it un- into the more inaccessible regions, furnecessary to refer in detail to what that nishing their own protection, and doing system was. As there were no sur- prospecting of a sort and to an extent veys of any importance whatever, the never before paralleled in the history of first thing to be done in establishing a the Philippine Islands. The result is public-land system is to have the public that our knowledge of the mineral relands accurately surveyed. This is a sources of the group is rapidly increaswork of years, but it is thought that a ing. When all due allowance is made system of the laws of public lands can for prospectors' exaggerations, it is not be inaugurated without waiting until the too much to say that the work thus far survey is completed. Large amounts of done has demonstrated the existence of American capital are only awaiting the many valuable mineral fields. The provopportunity to invest in the rich agri- inces of Benguet, Lepanto, and Bontoc cultural field which may here be devel- in particular form a district of very great oped. In view of the decision that the richness. military government has no power to In the province of Lepanto, at Manpart with the public land belonging to cayan and Suyoc, there are immense dethe United States, and that that power posits of gray copper and copper sulrests alone in Congress, it becomes very phide, and running through this ore are essential, to assist the development of veins of gold-bearing quartz, which is these islands and their prosperity, that more or less disintegrated and in places Congressional authority be vested in the is extremely rich. This copper ore has government of the islands to adopt a been assayed, and the claim is made that proper public-land system, and to sell it runs on the average 8 per cent copper, the land upon proper terms.

while gold is often present in consider

able quantities. The deposits are so exMINERAL WEALTH AND THE MINING tensive as to seem almost inexhaustible. INDUSTRY.

The Commission has been unable to

verify the statements as to the extent It is difficult at the present time to and richness of these copper deposits make any accurate general statement as through its own agents, but the auregards the mineral resources of the thority for them is such that they are Philippine Islands. There has never believed to be substantially correct.

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