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longer route by way of Tubac and Tuc- 110 records, scores leaving no sign save son) the main overland tributary to “ El bleaching bones ; but observers estimate Camino Real"--The Royal Highway of that there were 400 victims of thirst California.

between Altar and Yuma within eight The Jesuits were expelled in 1767; but years, an estimate which so conservative the old Yuma trail and the old Califor- a traveler as Captain Gaillard thought nia missions remained as monuments to fair after he had “ counted sixty-five their enterprise and as means of later graves in a single day's ride of a little progress.

over thirty miles.'' With the international friction presaging the Mexican war, the importance

THE BOUNDARY SURVEYS. of the ancient trail began to wane ; with the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo With the Gadsden purchase of 1853, in 1848 our own argonauts cast their the boundary surveys already under way eyes toward the far-rumored overland received fresli impetus, while the beroute, and with the gold fever of Forty- lated argonauts still trying all possible nine the activity along the fitly named paths toward the new territory, whose Camino del Diablo waxed again tempo

was synonymous with gold for rarily. The sharing of its miseries by a generation, were once more tempted American and Mexican adventurers be- southward. So, even before the survey got sympathy and mutual understand

reports were published the fame of the ing, and opened enduring friendships route spread widely ; stories of hard which helped to heal the international marches over the malpais stretching out breach and obliterate the scars of war- from the volcano of Pinacate, of the fare. Yet the transitional epoch was not miring of outfits in the bottomless mud without painful episodes; the Crabb of Tule valley in springtime, of wagons filibustering expedition struck the his- clogged in shifting sands, of desperate toric trail on their way via Sonoyta, to night marches under the sharp goads of be annihilated at Caborca (where the old tirirst and hunger, of rescues of thirstchurch still bears bullet-marks of the crazed waifs, of burials of the bodies battle); tradition tells of an immigrant and distributions of the goods of less colony from Mexico to California follow- fortunate parties-these and other hearting the ancient way to Tinajas Altas, rending recitals were whispered afar, or where they were halted by an evil con- penned in friendly letters, to color the junction of epidemic with international lore of America's most energetic pioneercomplications to fill literal scores of ing and filter meagerly (far too meagerly graves still dotting the barren footslopes for full history) into literature. The of the dazzling sierra ; and equally stir- ill-repute of the trail gradually diverted ring events still live in the memories of the overland travel to more northerly all older Arizonians and Sonorenses. routes, and wlieni the Southern Pacific

It was during the gold-fever renais- Railway pushed over the arid zone in sance that the death-roll of El Camino the seventies the old route was finally del Diablo became most appalling, for deserted, save by Papago pilgrims in many of the travelers were fresh from the sacramental journeys still pursued, humid lands, knew naught of the decep- and by rare prospectors or hunters. tive mirage or the ever-hovering thirst- The final chapter in the history of the craze of the desert, and pressed out on Yuma trail touches only the retraversing the sand wastes without needful prepara- of the route (after sixteen years withtion. The roll will never be written in out the passage of a vehicle) by the full, since most of the unfortunates left International Boundary Commission of 1891-1896, and the erection of the most frugal fare of the commissioners and serviceable series of international bound- their colaborers ; for one of the characary monunients on the western hemi- teristics of the desert is the extreme sphere—massive pillars of cast iron or sluggishness of surface-changing prosolid pyramids of cement-laid stone- cesses, a sluggishness hard to realize by each so located that the next monument those who dwell in hunid lands. and the intervening country in either After the passing of the boundary direction can be seen from its site, while parties, the old trail remained untrodthe position of each is established with den from Quitobaquito westward, except respect to neighboring natural features by by a road supervisor erecting guide-posts published photographs. The boundary in the portion lying within Yuma County, party was of men well known through- and by three horsemen (an American, out both countries; the American com- a Mexican, and an Indian) in other pormissioners, Colonel Barlow, Captain tions, until November, 1900, when it Gaillard, and Astronomer Mosman, like was struck by an expedition of the Buthe naturalist, Dr. Mearns, were chosen on reau of American Ethnology. account of previous achievements, while the Mexican commissioners, Señores Blanco, Gama, and Puga, were equally

Such, in brief, is the history of one eminent representatives of the sister re

of the most striking and picturesque

routes of travel on the continent. Trodpublic. A report worthy to serve as a model for future commissions, accompa

den first in a prehistoric period known nied by an ample atlas and a portfolio only through crumbling ruins, then fol

lowed for half a millennium or more in of photo-mechanically faithful portraits of the plains and mountains intersected

votive journeys of Papago tribesmenby the boundary, has been published

the Bedouin of America—it was traced within a few months, while one of the

by Spaniards long before the landings clearest pictures of the arid region ever

on James' island and on Plymouth

Rock. drawn is Captain Gaillard's Perils

Adopted by evangelists two and Wonders of a True Desert."'*

centuries ago, it soon became a line of The wheel ruts and mule tracks left by pioneering, a highway of colonization, the party seven years ago are still plain

an artery of royal communication ; next along the trail, save where obliterated

it was thronged by the indomitable army by sand-drifts ; even the tent-pegs, ash

of argonauts on their way to open a new heaps, half rusted cans, and empty pickle

world on the shores of the Pacific, and

later it lapsed into utter desert, than bottles still attest the arduous work and

which there is none more forbidding in *The Cosmopolitan, October, 1896, pp. 592-605.

America.

To be conluded in the April number.

THE SEA FOGS OF SAN FRANCISCO

F

o

VROM May to September little concludes that the summer afternoon

rain falls in San Francisco, but fogs of the San Francisco Bay region are

every afternoon great banks of probably due to mixture, rather than to fog march in from the Pacific and en- radiation or expansion. They are the wrap the houses, streets, and hills in result of sharp temperature contrasts at their dense folds. Ocean fogs as a rule the boundaries of air currents having form when cool air flows over warm different temperatures, humidities, and moist surfaces ; but in the case of the velocities. In originating and directing San Francisco sea fogs these conditions these air currents the peculiar contours are reversed, for the ocean surface tem- of the land also play an important part. perature is 55° Fahrenheit, while the The fog outside the Heads may extend air temperature may reach 80°. Another over an area io miles square and reaches explanation, therefore, of the cause of to a height of about half a mile. If it these fogs must be sought.

were solidly packed its bulk would thus A glance at the map (not reproduced) be 50 cubic miles. As a cubic foot of shows how ocean, bay, mountain, and the fog at its average dew-point temfoothills are crowded together. Fast of perature, 51° F., weighs 4.222 grains, San Francisco stretches a valley 450 a fair estimate of its total weight, allowmiles long and 50 miles wide and level ing for wide swaths or channels fog as a table.

In this valley the afternoon free, is 1,000,000 tons. This immense temperature in summer is usually 100° volume is carried through the Golden or over. The valley is connected by a Gate by westerly winds blowing 22 miles narrow water passage, the Golden Gate, an hour, from 1 to 5 p. m. on summer with the Pacific Ocean, the mean tem- afternoons. perature of whose waters is in this local- The United States Weather Bureau ity about 55°. Thus within a distance maintains a station on Mt. Tamalpais, of 50 miles in a horizontal direction which is about half a mile above seathere is frequently a difference of 50 level and thus above the fog, another degrees in temperature. At the same in the city of San Francisco, where the time in a vertical direction there is often fog converges, and a third station at a difference of 30 degrees in an eleva- Point Reyes, the center of origin of the tion of half a mile. Well-marked air fog. Mt. Tamalpais is about 25 miles currents, drafts, and counter-drafts are from Point Reyes and 10 miles from therefore prevalent

San Francisco. The prevailing surface air currents

The differences in the temperature at this season of the year are strong and humidity of these three stations is westerly currents, but high bluffs, ridges, most marked. The highest temperaand headlands intercept these winds at ture recorded on the mountain during such an angle that they are diverted to the year 1899 was 96°, on July 18; the and pour through the Golden Gate with maximum temperature on the same day greatly increased velocity. The result at San Francisco was 66°, and at Point is that both air and water vapor are piled Reyes 52o. That is, on the mountain up at this point. Mr. McAdie therefore it was 30 degrees hotter than in the Figure 1.-Morning Fog over Valleys. View from U. S. Weather Bureau Observatory, Mount Tamalpais.

city and 14 degrees hotter than at Point *An abstract of a paper contributed to the Monthly Weather Review for November, 1900,

Reyes. The mean annual temperature by Alexander G. McAdie, forecast official of

of the three stations is, however, about the U. S. Weather Bureau at San Francisco. the same for all, 55°, which is also the

[graphic]
[graphic]

Figure 2.—Lifted Fog Height above ground about 500 meters.

. View from U. S. Weather Bureau Observatory, Mount Tamalpais.

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