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northward, and southward, or with beads one case community of religious form or with empty tin cans, all of which with European countries will tend to served my purpose in various places, complicate the situation, in that the misrather than to have the convenience of sionary cannot appear so opportunely as using the Maria Theresa or the Menelek a casus belli. However, to overcome dollar, which coins are now quite readily that difficulty, we may convince airtaken along the caravan routes from selves that the Christianity of the AbysAddis Abeba to the east.

sivians is not quite the correct styje; Rather this inconvenience of crude and may thus approximate this case to methods, with the greater simplicity others in which the itching palm is and straightforwardness of the untu

stretched forth as if in prayer. tored native, than the coarse cunning Here again let me say that it is not my which begins to appear when the native desire to criticise missionary methods. begins to suspect and compete with To me, believing, as I do, that the unithe superiority of the white man and verse is absolutely law-ordered, even to to truckle only to one thing, namely, the lifting of a finger, the blood-thirsty backsheesh.

missionary appears to be as solemn and

as necessary a part of the scheme of the THE FUTURE OF ABYSSINIA. universe as any other part.

Quite as convenient, perhaps even more Today Menelek and the Sultan of so, than the missionary as a casus belli is Morocco control the only two territories the railway—that is, the railway of civindependent of actual occupation or dip- ilized man laid in barbarian country. lomatic claim on the part of some Euro- Not only may it furnish the cause of pean power. As between these powers, war, but it, of course, immensely simplithis division has been made without fies the problem of carrying out the war bloodshed, and is a notable triumph for which it may lave produced. While diplomacy ; and I believe that the Euro- the French, together with the English, pean domination of African territories Italians, and Russians—the four nations may be counted as blessed, for certainly which have sent emissaries to Menethose territories which have passed be- lek-are doubtless of the firm convicyond the first paroxysms of savage re

tion that this is not the time for warsistance now show larger and more making, that the enlightened peace of comfortable populations than existed Menelek serves best all purposes which under native rule and misrule. This is can now be served, it remains that when not set forth as an apology for the grasp- disorders of any sort arise, if the railway ing of territories held by lower races, may have then been completed up to the since our ethical standard is not well top of the Abyssinian plateau, the French enough determined for application to will have obtained a very great advanthese cases, and since, moreover, the tage for the playing of such part as they grasping continues to take place, whether may then choose. we count it as right or wrong.

An extension of the British-Egyptian The ultimate determination of the Railway up the Nile, now stopping at Abyssinian aud Morocco territories will Khartum, may be made without great put a much more severe strain upon dip- difficulty along the route which I follomacy than it has yet been called upon lowed, and which I pointed out in a to bear in regard to African affairs. paper about to appear in the Journal of The population now in occupancy of the the Royal Geographical Society of Lonterritory is in both cases far above the don. Such extension would practically average of African intelligence, and in equate advantages in respect to transportation, if we consider only a contest be- desert and their obedience to the firm, tween either France or England on the wise rule of the English officer, recallone side and' Abyssinia on the other ; ing the unchanging story of almost unbut if tliese great Powers were them- ending tribal war, you would feel very selves at war, then the naval supremacy nearly convinced that, if indeed peace of Bagiand, operating from a great for- and order be good for tlie lowly develtified sub-base such as Aden, would prob- oped peoples of the world, this good alte control and paralyze the Jibuti will be earliest attained by the sacrifice terminal of the French railway.

to some such great policing power as But taxed as is Great Britain now, it Great Britain of an independence which does not seem probable that this 500-mile ever has meant native tyranny. extension will be undertaken at a very But we must remember also that disearly date. So far as the peace of the asters which read terror into our blood civilized world and the continued inde- but furnish in part the needed excitependence of the Abyssinian are con- ment to give some value to the crustacerned, it seems probable that a continu- cean lives of these rude people. ation of the state of unpreparedness on Passing one day through the ruins of the part both of France and England a village marked by broken pottery vesshould serve best these ends of peace. sels and grinding-stones, my grinning To subsequently maintain at about equal guide explained that here he had lived point of advantage the facility which some few years ago; the village had either of these great nations might have been attacked by Mahdists or slavefor making war upo!, with, or through traders, he seemed scarcely to know or the Abyssinians would prolong the na- care which, and he had lost his hut, tional life of this interesting people, who three wives, and one or two children, occupy in barbaric style one of those himself escaping into the close-pressing splendid stretches of the earth's surface bush. But,” said he, with the philosowhich must ever tempt the daring Euro- phiy which made me poor in his comparpean. driven forth as he is by a blind ison, “I now have another hut, other racial instinct-driven forth to combat wives, and other children,” and he and to push away the specter that Mal- laughed good-naturedly. Absolutely the thus raised.

only care at that time in the mind of this Could you have been with me in simple savage was a desire to get loose marching over the devastation marking from the caravan in order that he might the as yet unconquered Bollasa region return to the hulk of a hippopotamus into the Sudan, where only a few months which I had shot two days before. before the blood of the dying calipha Could he but secure that black carcass had cemented the foundations of peace; for himself and his small village, life could you have seen there the small but would have no other cares-today, tohappy beginnings of well-ordered vil

morrow, and even next week would be lages and the contented submission of provided for. Could more be asked of these black and wayward children of the Heaven ?




OME three to seven centuries be- spoilsman--and hence the hereditary

fore Columbus, the country lying enemy--of the plains people. During

south of Gila River, west of the this early agricultural period the scant Sierra Madre, and east of the Califor- waters of the region were where they nian Gulf was occupied by an agricul- are now, and were probably little, if tural people, and the ruins of their vil- any, more abundant than today, though lages, the remains of their irrigation better conserved and distributed by works, and the crumbling fortifications means of represos and low-gradient of their places of refuge on adjacentacequias. The village sites were those hilltops-mute witnesses of the rise and selected long after for aboriginal and passing of a people-still survive in Mexican pueblos, with a few others numbers. The finely wrought fictile never again occupied, while the trails ware, shapely stone implements, and ob- and roads, as they were by watering sidian blades from the ruins betoken the places and impassable sierras, must culture commonly known as Aztecan have followed lines corresponding with or Mexican, or better as Nahuatlan. those of later travel. Among the natThe location and extent of the house ural routes fixed by water and mountremains, as well as the traces of great tain, and still marked by ruins and acequias, betoken irrigation systems smaller relics, was that which long after more extensive and successful than became the Yuma trail. those of the Mexicans or Americans of today. The vestiges of temples and

THE TIME OF TRADITION. plazas combine with the symbolic decoration of the pottery to betoken a com

The ancient lore and modern customis plex social organization resting on a of the Papago Indians tell of descent religious basis, while the corrals (each from the prehistoric irrigators-tell that with its water hole) in many of the vil- their tribal ancestors were among the lages, together with some of the picto- few survivors of the prehistoric pastoral graphs carved on neighboring cliffs, folk who, driven into the deserts too far suggest, if they do not attest, that a for foes to follow, were able to adjust llama-like animal, the coyote, the tur- themselves to one of the hardest environkey, and perhaps other creatures, were ments in America, to engage in a ceasedomesticated by the villagers. The less chase for water singularly like the entrenched refuges (“las trincheras" chase for quarry in lower culture, and of the modern Mexicans) are among to produce a unique combination of various indications that the peaceful, crop-growing industries with migratory pastoral folk were displaced and nearly habits. destroyed by a predatory foe whose One of the earliest havens of the allruthless energies were directed against cestral exiles was a meager oasis already irrigation works as weil as against fam- occupied by some of them, though diilies, farms, and flocks, and the testi- vided from the customary Apache range mony of the ruins is supported by the by a hundred miles of waterless desert; traditions of surviving tribes, which here a tiny rivulet, fed by the subterpoint to the marauding Apache as the ranean seepage from rugged granite


ranges on north and south, trickles per- desert to Sonoyta between noon-day manently over the sands of a broad wash suns; and there is traditional evidence occasionally swept by the freshets fol- that the granite walls of the peak-so lowing storms in the same mountains; lofty and precipitous that but one Cauhere the refugees began anew the de- casian * has scaled them—were climbed velopment of tribal character; and here and its crest occupied by at least one began their unwritten Book of Leviti- party of tribesmen. In time Baboquicus, following their Genesis and Exo- vari became the Sacred Mount of all the dus in curiously Hebraic order, in their Papago; and as the tribe multiplied and Ancient Sacred Tales. Devotees (like flowed feebly back toward the ancestral other lowly folk) to the dark mysteries valleys, the sacramental pilgrimage of of unstudied nature, they had brought the young men was so extended as to their old faith with them, but enslırined cover the 150 miles from Baboquivari to it anew in their second Eden; carrying the sea, with Sonoyta as a way station. a cult of the sea-a vestige of littoral life A half of the path thus trodden by the in earlier generations-in which they Papago, pilgrims from some centuries worshipped the ocean as the infinitely before Columbus up to the beginning of potent Mother of Waters, and finding the twentieth century was that retrodden their faith sharpened fearsomely by the by Caucasians for a century and a third incomparable preciousness of fluid in as the Yuma trail. these outer deserts, they enjoined on their young men pilgrimages to the THE COMING OF THE CAUCASIAN. Gulf at its nearest point as sacramental requisites for entering into the stage The first foreigners to approach the and condition of full manhood; bringing ancient trail were Alvar Nuñez Cabeza seed of maize and beans from ancestral de Vaca and his companions (in all, gardens, they not only planted but three whites and one black), as they cherished their crops with a consuming near the end of the most remarkable watchfulness growing into actual wor- transcontinental journey in the history ship, and finally giving name to both of America, in the spring of 1536; three locality and tribe--for oasis and river or four years later Coronado's army also came to be known as the Place of Corn approached and perhaps crossed within (Sonoyta, as commonly written), and the sight of Baboquivari, and it is practically tribe as Beans People (papahoaatam).* certain that a detachment of this army The habit of eternal vigilance on the actually followed the footsteps and guidpart of the Papago of defense or flight, ance of the Papago pilgrims over a part according to the strength of invading of the trail. It was in September, 1540, parties, led to the placing of outposts that Captain Melchior Diaz set out from as far east of Sonoyta and as near to Coronado's headquarters at Corazones the Apache range as might be; and (at or near the site of the present Ures) eventually a semi-symbolic outpost was with a force of 25 men in the hope of established at the most conspicuous intercepting Alarcon's fleet on the coast, and impressive landmark of all Papa- and so shaped his course as to strike Rio glieria-Baboquivari Peak. This sta- Colorado a little way above its mouth. tion was supported partly by slamans His route was never mapped, nor even armed with magical devices, partly by fully described (he lost his life through bold and athletic warriors who could be an accident in the Colorado country) ; trusted to traverse the hundred miles of but to one who has traversed the region in several directions, sifted the local lore for which they adopted tlie native name of waterpockets in the rocks and coyote- House-ring Spring * (Quitobac), and holes in the sandwashes, and traced the they set their wooden cross midway beroutes of both prehistoric and present tween the two settlements and called travel, it seems clear that Diaz' detach- the place Santo Domingo. ment worked northwestward to the As missionizing proceeded, routes of Horcacitas and on to Rio San Ignacio, travel were opened from tribe-range to and thence across the plains to Sonoyta, tribe-range ; and in the course of a few

* CF “ Papagneria," THE NATIONAI, GEO- * Prof. R. H. Forbes, of the Territorial UniGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, vol. ix, 1898, p. 345. versity of Arizona.

, where he must have watered and rested decades the hard trail from Culiacan (or before pushing forward by way of the Ures, or Chiluahua, or Fronteras) to high waterpockets (Tinajas Altas) to Santo Domingo, and thence to the Yuma the great

“River of Good Guidance country on the Colorado and on to the (Rio de Bono Guia, an early name of missions of California, became an estabthe Colorado); and it must have been lished route of travel and communicaby the same route that the leaderless tion. The palmiest days of the Yuma party returned in January, 1541.

trail rose and set in the century 1740With this expedition the third chap- 1840. It was trodden by adventurers ter in the history of the Yuma trail ends too poor to ride, yet too plucky to stay ; abruptly; for, through the most astound- it was beaten by hoofs bearing churchly ing blunder of American geography, the equipage and royal commissions and memory of Diaz and the records of Alar- vice-regal reports too precious to be encon and his predecessor, Ulloa, dropped trusted to the crude craft then plying the out of mind for more than a century and Pacific; it was furrowed by the huge a half, during which the Californias were hewn-log wheels of Mexican carts carrymapped as a great island in the Pacific. ing families a few miles a day, and later

by the iron tires of prairie schooners and THE JESUITS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS. primitive stages; its borders were tram

pled by stock driven out to enrich the Toward the close of the seventeenth distant province of Alta California ; and century the era of Jesuit missionizing in its course was marked by the pitiful milePapagueria opened, and not long after stones of solitary graves, each with its Padre Kino and his colleaglies struck cruciform heap of pebbles. During this the tribesmen's trail from Baboquivari period the hard route was dubbed “El to Sonoyta ; and it was in 1701 that Camino del Diablo ;” and it formed (alKino pushed westward, necessarily by ternatively with the easier but much way of Tinajas Altas (which he was the

* The typical Papago house is of hemispherfirst to map), and rediscovered Rio Colo

ical shape and made of grass thatch attached rado, thereby puncturing the bubble of to a framework of mesquite saplings and akafictitious geography.

tilla stems; it is called ki or key. The first The good padres were ideal pioneers ;

stage in building is the erection of a first course

of thatch in the form of a vertical ring 12 or wherever the Indian trails led, there they

15 feet in diameter ; this may be occupied for followed; and wherever an Indian settle- weeks or months before the upper courses are ment was found, there they erected added to complete the walls and forming the crosses and sought converts. To them

roof ; it is called ki-to. Bac is one of several the Place of Corn on the slender rivulet

Papago terms for water or watering place, and

is applied specifically to springs. When the was a fertile field. Some fifteen miles missionaries found a larger Papago settlement down the sandwash from the principal about a series of mineral springs 30 miles south village they found a smaller settlement

of Sonoyta, also called Quitobac, they applied

a Spanish diminutive to the first found village, gathered about a spring of whitish water

and ever since it has been known as Quitobaseeping from potash-bearing granites, quito .

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