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Photograph by Erdelyi A WAGONLOAD OF REEDS FOR THE VILLAGE BASKET WEAVERS For centuries the Rumanians in Transylvania had to make practically everything they used. Prior to 1848 the peasants were held in serfdom, and the habit of supplying their own wants became so strong that even now most of the things they use are made at home. Everything worn by these men is homemade, the coats being of a sort of felt, the hats of sheepskin, the trousers of homespun wool, and the boots are made by the village cobbler from domestic cowhide. The load of reeds will soon be converted into baskets.

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Photograph by Erdelyi
PASTORAL WEALTH IN RAGMANI
In Rumania each village has a community shepherd, a cowherd, and a swineherd. Early each morning these men blow their horns, and the villagers
lead out their stock and turn it over to the herdsmen. The animals are tended all day on community pasture lands and brought safely back at night.
Each cow, sheep, and pig knows its own home and leaves the herd upon reaching its destination.

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Photograph by Merl La Voy SAXON BOYS WHOSE FOREFATHERS CAME TO TRANSYLVANIA CENTURIES AGO

The Germans and Rumanians have intermarried little in Transylvania, and both peoples have retained their racial purity. Some of the customs of each, however, have felt the influence of the other. Especially is this true of costumes, where the Rumanian influence has been particularly strong. These boys wear such clothes on Sundays and holidays only.

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Photograph by Erdelyi A COTTAGE IN THE CARPATHIANS Such relics of the days when the Transylvanian peasant's lot was almost as hard as that of the Russian serf are now being replaced by more commodious homes. This is a cottage in Trascau, one of the "Szekler," or Hungarian, colonist villages established in Transylvania by the kings of Hungary some 700 years ago (see, also, text, page 319).

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