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Photograph by J. Theodore Marriner

THE CASTLE OF BRAN Prior to 1918 this castle belonged to the Hungarian Government, but when Transylvania became a part of Rumania the people of Brasov presented the old fort to Queen Marie (see text, page 332).


It was here that King Ferdinand and Queen Marie, in October, 1922, signalized their formal assumption of sovereignty over Transylvania (see, also, page 325).

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Photograph by Erdelyi A BIT OF SAXONY SURVIVING IN TRANSYLVANIA The lace apron worn by the housewife and the floral designs on the embroidered bed cover are distinguishing marks of the Saxon. Rumanian designs are nearly always variations of geometrical figures.

man and the aspects of Nature change. known as the Burzenland, which surThe excellent macadam road, with gran- rounds Brasov. ite retaining walls, descends in seven even hairpin turns beside a brook tinkling over

BRASOV, SAXON STRONGHOLD, URGED BY stones and confining itself in orderly fash

SOME FOR RUMANIA'S CAPITAL ion within its verdant banks.

This town of some 60,000 inhabitants Infrequent cottages are substantially has been suggested as a capital for the built of stucco and freshly painted, in new and greater Rumania, and it has contrast to thatched mud-and-wattle huts much to recommend it, being almost in on the other side of the pass.

the center of the country, easily defended. Before one comes in sight of Brasov having the charm of age and tradition one is already aware of what the moun- and room for expansion in the surroundtain barrier has meant and what it has ing plain. protected for so many centuries.

Nevertheless, the tourist cannot but be In about half an hour from Predeal the grateful that nothing has as yet come of mountains give way to the fertile plain a project which would annihilate an an


Photograph by Erdelyi SZEKLER ( HUNGARIAN COLONIST) FARMERS FROM TRASCAU (SEE, ALSO, PAGE 350 ) In the mountainous Carpathian country oxen are commonly used as draft animals because of

their superior strength and endurance.

cient Saxon border stronghold amid streets are lined with neatly painted, lightFrenchified public buildings, such as mod- blue and chrome-yellow, one-story houses, ern architects would be likely to erect to attached to one another by elaborate area house the official departments of this gateways, all shut. . highly centralized government.

The streets narrow toward the center

of the town and lead to King Ferdinand RACIAL AND NATIONAL TYPES FREQUENT

Square, in which stands the Renaissance BRASOV'S MARKETS

Town Hall, built in the fifteenth century Unaware of an impending fate that and remodeled with baroque fervor in might bring financial prosperity and es- 1777 (see page 320). thetic ruin, the city glistens in the sun as Here are held the markets, which bring the motor coasts from the Predeal Pass together a rich variety of racial and nainto the suburbs. Wide, mountainous tional types. The burghers of the town Photograph by Erdelyi A WEDDING PROCESSION It is customary in Transylvania for nearly all the young people in a village to take part in the ceremonies and festivities attendant on a wedding. The young men are seen accompanying the bridegroom to the house of the bride, followed by musicians. The women, bringing up the rear, are carrying food for the marriage feast, one basket being piled high with waferlike plum cakes.


are Saxons, proud descendants of Fran- practically unchanged since they came conian ancestors, who have been settled in from Franconia six centuries ago. the city for 600 years. Despite this long The men wear full-length, flaring, sinseparation from the homeland, closest gle-breasted coats of dark blue, heavily connection with it has been maintained. braided across the chest, with a small, flat,

These outposts of their race early felt soft hat, which on festal occasions is the influence of the Reformation in Ger- decorated with two heavy tassels lying on many, and Honterus, known as the Apos- the shoulders. tle of Transylvania, during the lifetime The everyday attire of the women is a of Luther won converts to Protestanism tight bodice of dark color, faring skirts, in the great Black Church which looks and many petticoats of another dark shade down upon the square.

braided in a brilliant hue. If married The present-day citizens of Brasov look they bind their hair so as to conceal not unlike German university students; every vestige of it in a silk handkerchief, no trace of centuries of battles with the on top of which is perched a sailor hat heathen gleams in their spectacled eyes, like the mode of the nineties in America. and no frontiersman's freedom of motion On great holidays this costume is exbetrays itself through their stiff-cut changed for heavy damask with a long clothes. Blond they are and blue-eyed, white apron, while about the waist is but they are obliged to yield in freshness clamped a silver-gilt belt with heavy of complexion to their rustic cousins of bosses studded with glass or semi-precious near-by agricultural villages.

stones, and ornaments of the same fine This prosperous farmer folk drive into workmanship adorn the bodice and fasten town in springless carts, dressed in a the embroidered fillet binding the hair. national costume which has remained This silver-gilt work is the principal

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