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A NEARER VIEW OF THE BUGLERS SHOWN ON PAGE 214 Though Wang Ye Fu was founded nearly 250 years ago, most of its inhabitants are still nomad herdsmen. It has something approaching a court and is one of the few border towns affording the nomads a glimpse of settled city life (see text, page 233).

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Most of the blacksmiths use the street for a workshop, setting their anvils and forges near a house wall, under an awning. Nobody protests, for is not the street public property?

The dyers work their vats on the streets or in the courtyards, and hang up long strips of dripping blue cotton cloth to dry in sequestered nooks. Down in the stony stream beds half-naked young men set sheepskins and goatskins to soak; then beat and scrape them for market.

The main shopping street runs south from the gate. A few big trading firms have imposing Chinese gateways which lead to great inner courtyards, large enough for a whole caravan to unload its wares, and quiet side rooms where tea is drunk during discussions about busi

ness. Most of the reA CHINESE TINSMITH IN THE STREETS OF PAOTOW tail trade, however, is

done in shady little is made up here into furniture for the shops which open wide on the street. Mongol market. Frameworks and low The merchant stands behind his black doorways for the felt tents, small portable counter with his wares piled on shelves cupboards, chests and boxes, watering behind him, an apprentice or two in long troughs and ready-made linings for the blue gowns dodging back and forth to wells in the sand, are among the products tend the stove or bring goods that are manufactured.

called for from the inner room.

Poorer The coppersmiths hammer out great, merchants set up an awning in the street

, flat, circular water-bottles, nearly two feet and spread out their wares on the ground. in diameter and four or five inches thick.

MONGOL MIGRATIONS HAVE WRITTEN These hang from the camels' packsaddles

WANG YE FU'S HISTORY on a journey. Tall, round pots with handles, for tea, and lower, broader pots, for Merchandise comes in by caravan. One cooking over a dung fire, are also made. day the town will be deluged with stamped

There are three silversmiths in the tin wash-basins, and a week later not one town, who, working with fine files and can be had. The Mongols come in for tiny hammers, make the gorgeous earrings a few days to shop, leading camels from which the Mongol women wear.

booth to booth as they bargain; then,



Millions of people live on the river junks of China and many of them never leave their boats to go ashore. The crait are mostly from 20 to 50 or 60 feet in length, having one or two square sails. The river women carry their youngest children strapped to their backs, while to the larger ones are fastened dried bottle-gourds to keep them afloat when they fall overboard, which is not an uncommon occurrence.

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© Herbert G. Ponting THE FIVE-ARCHED MARBLE GATEWAY TO THE MING TOMBS The site of the Ming Tombs, chosen by the Emperor Yung Lo, is a peaceful valley some 30 miles northwest of Peking. The remains of 13 out of the 16 monarchs of the Ming Dynasty are interred here. This p'ai lou (memorial gateway) was erected in 1541 and marks the principal entrance to the Valley of the Tombs. It is 50 feet high and 80 feet wide and is, perhaps, the finest in China.


Photograph by Dr. Osvald Siren THE OUTER TOWER OF THE TE SHENG MEN, OR GATE OF VICTORY, PEKING This north wall of China's capital city, built of brick, stone, and concrete, and 60 feet thick at the base, was constructed either by Kublai Khan or by the Emperor Yung Lo. The great towers which surmount the gates in the wall are of comparatively recent construction, none of them dating earlier than the 15th century, while some are modern. They are pierced with many apertures, supposedly for cannon, but now generally empty.

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